1 - существительное degree имеет несколько непохожих друг на друга значения:
"Градус" в отношение к температуре или углу:
Water boils at 100 degrees. - Вода кипит при 100 градусах.
Turn it 45 degrees to the right. - Поверни это на 45 градусов вправо.
"Степень (уровень)" чего-либо:
New city parks increase the degree of the citizens happiness. - Новые городские парки увеличивают степень счастья горожан.
Научная "степень": doctor degree - докторская степень.
2 - существительное function означает "функция", как цель, назначение объекта или в математическом смысле:
The function of banks is to provide the business with money. - Функция банков - обеспечивать бизнес деньгами.
The square functions are still difficult for these small children. - Квадратные функции все еще сложные для этих детей.
3 - существительное growth означает "рост" как процесс увеличения объекта в размере (но не как высота объекта), так как оно образуется от изученного ранее глагола grow. Для обозначения высоты, роста объекта используется другое существительное height. Обратите внимание на его произношение не по правилам: [hait]. Думаю это связано с словообразующим его прилагательным, изученным ранее: high (высокий).
Why is your growth so slow? - Почему твой рост такой медленный?
What is your height? - Какой твой рост?
4 - существительные item является синонимом изученного ранее существительного thing, и означает какой-либо предмет, особенно если он является составной частью какого-либо набора:
I found all the items of the computer that you hid. - Я нашел все предметы компьютера, которые ты спрятал.
5 - существительное provision образовано от изученного ранее глагола provide, и означает:
"Снабжение" - процесс по обеспечению чем-либо:
The provision of poor families is their main work. - Снабжение бедных семей - их основная работа.
"Провизия" - набор вещей для кого-либо:
They transport provision for poor families. - Они транспортируют провизию для бедных семей.
6 - три глагола accuse, blame и condemn похожи в переводе на русский друг на друга, но имеют отличие. Глагол accuse означает именно обвинять "в" каком-либо действие, и после него ставится предлог of, если говорится "в" чем обвиняется объект. Глаголы blame и condemn более похожи друг на друга и их буквальный перевод "винить" и "осуждать" соответственно. После них ставится предлог for если говорится "за" что возлагается вина/осуждается объект:
He was accused of her murdering. - Он обвинялся в ее убийстве.
I was blamed/condemned for my purchases by family. - Моя семья винила/осуждала меня за мои покупки.
Хотя реже, condemn может встречаться в более близком значении к accuse:
He was condemned to the death. - Он был приговорен к смерте.
От глаголов accuse и condemn образуются существительные accusation ( [ækjʊ'zeiʃən] - обвинение
) и condemnation ([kɒndəm'neiʃən] ([ka:ndəm'neiʃən] - us) - осуждение
) с помощью суффикса -tion. Глагол blame сам по себе является одновременно существительным "вина".
7 - глагол appoint означает "назначать" на какую-либо должность, роль или место, время какого-либо события. Если говорится на какую должность назначается объект, то после appoint обычно ставится предлог as:
He is appointed as a bank manager. - Он назначается банковским менеджером.
I forgot to appoint the time of our meeting. - Я забыл назначить время нашей встречи.
От него с помощью суффикса -ment образуется существительное appointment ([ə'pɔintmənt]
) - "назначение" на должность или на встречу.
Look at these new words in sentences:
All items of this provision will be gotten.
Все предметы этой провизии будут получены.
How did you achieve such a degree of growth?
Как ты достиг такой степени роста?
Their function is to appoint the time of work for workers.
Их функция - назначать время работы для рабочих.
All his accusations are false.
Все его обвинения лживые.
The height of these buildings is the highest in the city.
Высота этих зданий - самая высокая в городе.
This woman accuses you of the stealing her expensive pen.
Эта женщина обвиняет тебя в краже ее дорогой ручки.
The manager asked his secretary to change the time of his morning appointments to the evening.
Менеджер попросил своего секретаря перенести время его утренник назначений на вечер.
Her condemnation is worse than your accusation.
Ее осуждение хуже чем твое обвинение.
The bank didn't take the blame for its mistake.
Банк не принимал вину за свою ошибку.
Your office doesn't do its functions.
Твой офис не делает своей функции.
This item is missing.
Этот предмет пропал.
The provision of African countries is the responsibility of rich ones.
Снабжение африканских стран - ответственность богатых стран.
It is 5 degrees outside.
Снаружи пять градусов.
The height of your son will be as yours if his growth doesn't slow down.
Рост твоего сына будет как твой, если его рост не замедлится.
Nobody can condemn you for your decisions.
Никто не может осуждать тебя за твои решения.
This man was appointed as the chief of this branch.
Этот человек был назначен главой этого филиала.
What degree does this function have?
Какя степень у этой функции?
They accuse me of losing the provision.
Они обвиняют меня в потере провизии.
Wasn't your appointment yesterday?
Разве твое назначение не было на вчера?
People condemned him for getting this degree earlier than his teacher.
Люди осуждали его за получение этой степени раньше чем его учитель.
This item won't help you to increase your height.
Этот предмет не поможет тебе увеличить свой рост.
What do you feel when someone blame you for nothing?
Что ты чувствуешь, когда кто-либо винит тебя ни за что?
The growth of this function is unlimited.
Рост этой функции не ограничен.
The name of relatives by husband or wife in English (родственники жены или мужа) - in-law
В английском языке изучение произношения этих родственников гораздо легче, так как необходимо просто прибавить приставку -in-law после названия, так, как если бы это был родной человек:
Now, you can continue reading the text.
Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 7)
In the hands of the citizens
Tellson's Bank in Paris was in a large building south of the river, close to the heart of the city. Mr Lorry had arrived in Paris some days before Charles Darnay, and was now living in some rooms above the bank. One evening, looking out of the window, he saw that a large grindstone had been brought into the square below. There was a wild, shouting crowd around it, busy sharpening their knives and swords and axes, which were already red with blood. With shaking hands, Mr Lorry closed the window.
He had decided to go downstairs and talk to the bank guards, when suddenly the door of his room opened, and Lucie and her father ran in.
"Lucie! Manette! What has happened? Why are you here?" cried Mr Lorry.
"Charles is in Paris," cried Lucie. "He came to help an old family servant. But he's been taken to prison."
At that moment the shouts of the crowd outside grew louder.
"What is that noise?" asked the Doctor.
"Don't look out!" cried Mr Lorry.
"My friend," said the Doctor. "I am safe in Paris. I was a prisoner in the Bastille. Everybody knows about me and how I suffered. Already people want to help me; they gave us news of Charles."
"Even so, don't look outside. Where is Charles?"
"In the prison of La Force."
"La Force! Dear Lucie, you can do nothing tonight. You must go to one of the rooms here and wait. I must talk with your father at once."
Lucie kissed him and left the room.
"Quick, Manette," said Mr Lorry. "These people outside, with their bloody knives, are murdering the prisoners. If you are so well known, if you have this power, talk to them. Tell them who you are, and go to La Force. Quick, before it is too late!"
Dr Manette hurried outside. Mr Lorry watched from the window as the Doctor talked to the crowd. He heard shouts of "Long live the Bastille prisoner! Help his friend in La Force!"
Mr Lorry went to Lucie and found her with her daughter and Miss Pross. Together they waited all night for news, but none came.
In the morning Mr Lorry found rooms for Lucie and her family in a quiet street near the bank. He left Jerry Cruncher with them as a guard, and returned worriedly to Tellson's. At the end of the day a strong, serious man came to see him.
"My name is Defarge. I come from Dr Manette; he gave me this." Defarge gave him a piece of paper.
The Doctor had written, Charles is safe, but I cannot leave this place yet. Take Defarge to Lucie.
"Come with me," said Mr Lorry happily. They went downstairs and at the front door found Madame Defarge, knitting.
Without a word, she joined them, and Mr Lorry led them to Lucie's rooms.
There, Defarge gave Lucie a note from her husband.
Dearest - be brave.
I am well, and your father has some power here. You cannot answer this, but kiss our child for me.
Only a short letter, but it meant so much to Lucie. Gratefully, she kissed the hands of Defarge and his wife. Madame Defarge said nothing; her hand was cold and heavy, and Lucie felt frightened of her.
Miss Pross came in with little Lucie.
"Is that his child?" asked Madame Defarge, stopping her knitting to stare.
"Yes, Madame," said Mr Lorry. "That is our poor prisoner's little daughter."
"It is enough, my husband," said Madame Defarge. "We can go now." Her voice was as cold as her hand.
"You will be good to my husband?" asked Lucie, afraid. "I beg you, as a wife and mother."
"We have known many wives and mothers," said Madame Defarge. "And we have seen many husbands and fathers put in prison, for many years. What is one more, among so many?"
As the Defarges left, Lucie turned to Mr Lorry.
"I am more afraid of her than of any other person in Paris," she whispered. Mr Lorry held her hands; he did not say anything, but he was also very worried.
The Doctor did not come back from La Force for several days. During that time eleven hundred prisoners were killed by the people. Inside the prison Dr Manette had come before a Tribunal, which was a group of judges appointed by the people. These judges made their own laws and threw prisoners out into the streets to be murdered by the crowds. Dr Manette told the Tribunal that he had been a prisoner in the Bastille for eighteen years, and that his son-in-law was now a prisoner in La Force. The Tribunal had agreed to keep Charles Darnay safe from the murdering crowds, but they would not let him leave the prison.
Dr Manette seemed to become stronger as he lived through these terrible days, doing everything he could to save his daughter's husband. He was able to see Darnay regularly, but noblemen and emigrants were hated by the citizens of new France, and the Doctor could not set Darnay free. The Guillotine, that new machine of death, cut off the heads of many, many people - the powerful and the cruel, but also the beautiful, the innocent, and the good. Each day Lucie did not know if her husband would live or die. She lived every moment in great fear, but her father was sure that he could save his son-in-law.
One year and three months passed and Darnay was still in prison. Dr Manette now had an official job as doctor to three prisons and was able to visit Darnay regularly. He became more and more loved by the rough people of the Revolution. But the Guillotine continued to kill.
"Try not to worry," he told Lucie. "Nothing can happen to Charles. I know that I can save him." But Lucie could not see him or visit him; she could not even write to him.
On the day when Charles Darnay was at last called for his trial, Lucie and Dr Manette hurried to Tellson's Bank to tell Mr Lorry. As they arrived, a man got up and disappeared into another room. They did not see who it was, but in fact it was Sydney Carton, just arrived from London.
There were five judges in the Tribunal, and the trials were short and simple. The voices of truth, honesty, and calm reason were never heard at these trials, and most of the prisoners were sent to the Guillotine, which pleased the noisy crowds. Fifteen prisoners were called before Darnay that day, and in no more than an hour and a half, all of them had been condemned to death.
"Charles Evremonde, who is called Darnay." As Darnay walked in front of the judges, he tried to remember the careful advice that Dr Manette had given him.
"Charles Evremonde, you are an emigrant. All emigrants must die. That is the new law of France."
"Kill him!" shouted the people. "Cut off his head! He's an enemy of the people!"
The President of the judges asked Darnay, "Is it true that you lived many years in England?"
"Yes, that is true," replied Darnay.
"So you are an emigrant, surely.'"
"No, not in the meaning of the law," replied Darnay. "I earn my own living in England. I have never wanted or used the name of Marquis, and I did not want to live by the work of the poor people of France. So I went to live and work in England, long before the Revolution."
"And did you marry in England?"
"Yes, I married a Frenchwoman. The daughter of Dr Manette, a prisoner of the Bastille and a well-known friend of all good citizens!"
These words had a happy effect on the crowd. Those who had shouted for his death now shouted for his life. Then Monsieur Gabelle and Dr Manette spoke for Charles Darnay. The Doctor spoke well and clearly, and was very popular with the crowd. When he had finished, the judges decided that the prisoner should be set free, and the crowd shouted their agreement loudly. Soon they were carrying Darnay in a chair through the streets of Paris to Dr Manette's house.
Lucie was waiting there, and when she ran out and fell into the arms of her husband, the men and women in the crowd kissed one another and danced for happiness. Darnay and Lucie were together again, safe and happy.
"I told you that I would save him," said Lucie's father proudly. "Well, I have saved him, and you must not worry now."
But Lucie was still worried. So many innocent men and women had died, for no reason, and every day brought more deaths. A shadow of fear and hate lay over France, and no one knew what dangers the next day would bring.
It was not possible to leave Paris at once, as Charles did not have the necessary papers. They must live quietly, and hope to leave as soon as they could.
But that night, when Dr Manette, Charles and Lucie were sitting together, they heard a loud knock at the door.
"What can this be?" said Lucie, trembling. "Hide Charles! Save him!"
"My child," said the Doctor, "I have saved him. He is a free man!"
But when he opened the door, four rough men pushed their way into the room.
"The Citizen Evremonde, where is he? He is again the prisoner of the people."
"I am here," said Darnay. "But why am I again a prisoner?"
"You are accused by citizens of Saint Antoine."
Dr Manette had said nothing. He seemed to be made of stone, but suddenly he spoke.
"Will you tell me who has accused my son-in-law?"
"I shouldn't tell you this," said one of the men, "But Citizen Evremonde, called Darnay, is accused by Monsieur and Madame Defarge, and by one other person."
In this English USA lesson, Martin Learner talks with his wife. They discuss the kinds of items they want to buy. You will learn to answer questions about items that you want.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 29, Part 1:
Eileen: Let's walk on this street. I want to buy a new dress.
Martin: Do you want a dress for work?
Eileen: Yes, I want a dress for the office. Stop. Look at that dress in the window. Do you like that dress?
Martin: No, I don't. It's too green. I don't like green dresses.
Eileen: OK. Let's look over there.
Martin: Do you like green?
Eileen: Green dresses? I don't know. Sometimes.
Martin: I want to buy a shirt.
Eileen: Do you want a shirt for work?
Martin: No, I want a shirt for tennis.
Eileen: Do you want a white shirt?
Martin: I don't know. No, I don't like white.
Eileen: What color do you want?
Martin: I don't know. What don't you like?
Eileen: I don't like red tennis shirts. I like blue or green. Do you like green shirts?
Martin: No, I don't. I like blue.
Eileen: Let's look for blue.
Eileen: Oh, look! See those yellow pants?
Martin: In the window? Yes, I see them.
Eileen: Do you like them?
Martin: Yes, I do. Do you want those pants?
Eileen: I don't know.
Martin: Do you want them for work?
Eileen: Do you really like them?
Martin: They're OK.
Eileen: OK? You don't like them.
Martin: Yes, I do. I really like them. Let's go inside.
Clerk: May I help you?
Eileen: I want to buy some yellow pants.
Clerk: Here. Look at these.
Eileen: No, I don't like those.
Clerk: Do you want another color? These green pants are very beautiful.
Eileen: No, thank you. My husband doesn't like green.
Martin: I like green.
Eileen: You didn't like the green dress.
Martin: That's right. I didn't like the green dress. But I like green.
Clerk: Do you like these green pants?
Martin: They're OK.
Eileen: He doesn't like them.
Martin: Do you like them?
Eileen: No, I don't. I don't like them for work.
Clerk: Do you want another color?
Eileen: I like the yellow pants in the window.
Clerk: Oh, yes. They are very nice. Wait a minute please. I'm going to get them for you.
Eileen: Do you really like them, Martin?
Martin: Yes, I do.
Eileen: Do you like them for the office?
Martin: I don't know.
Eileen: I don't like them for the office. Thank you very much. I'm going to look some more.
Clerk: You're welcome.
In English "like" and "want" are similar in structure. But the meanings are different. "I like to play tennis" means "Мне нравится играть в теннис". "I want to play tennis" means "Я хочу играть в теннис". Can you answer questions about what you want (full answer)?
Martin: Do you want to buy a shirt?
You: (Yes, I want to buy a shirt/No, I don't want to buy a shirt.)
Martin: Do you want to buy a dress?
You: (Yes, I want to buy a dress/No, I don't want to buy a dress.)
Martin: Do you want red pants?
You: (Yes, I want red pants/No, I don't want red pants.)
Martin: Do you want yellow pants?
You: (Yes, I want yellow pants/No, I don't want yellow pants.)
Martin: Let's look on this street. Do you see that store? I bought some clothes there last year.
Eileen: Oh, I like those shirts. Let's go inside.
In the second English USA lesson, Martin Learner and his wife are shopping. They talk about what they want to buy. You will learn to explain what you want to other people.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 29, Part 2:
Clerk: May I help you?
Martin: I want to buy a shirt.
Clerk: Do you want a dress shirt or a casual shirt?
Martin: I want a tennis shirt.
Clerk: Casual shirts are over here (почти то же самое что просто here, примерно как "вот здесь"). Come with me please.
Martin: I want a blue shirt.
Clerk: The blue shirts are here. Do you like these?
Martin: I don't know. Do you like these, Eileen?
Eileen: Not very much.
Clerk: I have some very nice blue and white shirts. Do you like these?
Martin: Yes, I do. I like these very much.
Eileen: They're very nice. Look at this one. Do you like it?
Martin: It has too much white. I want a shirt with more blue.
Eileen: This one? Do you like it?
Clerk: I like it. It's very nice.
Martin: Yes, I like it. I want to buy this shirt.
Clerk: OK. Come with me.
Martin: Do you want to buy a dress or pants?
Eileen: I want to buy a dress. Let's look upstairs.
Martin: Do you want me to come with you?
Eileen: Of course. I want you to look too. I want you to help.
Martin: Where are we going?
Eileen: Over there. See those dresses. Come with me.
Martin: There are too many dresses!
Clerk: May I help you?
Eileen: I want to look at dresses. I want to buy a dress for the office.
Clerk: These dresses are very beautiful.
Eileen: This is my size.
Clerk: What color do you want?
Eileen: I don't know. Any color. My husband doesn't like green.
Martin: I like green.
Eileen: You didn't like that green dress.
Martin: I know. I didn't like that green dress in the window.
Clerk: You don't want green. Do you like yellow?
Eileen: Yes, I like yellow.
Clerk: Does your husband like yellow?
Martin: Yes, I like yellow.
Clerk: This is a very nice black and white dress.
Martin: I like that very much.
Eileen: I'm going to try it.
Eileen: I want a pair of pants too.
Clerk: What color do you want?
Eileen: Brown or black.
Martin: Do you want two pairs of pants?
Clerk: Do you want one brown pair and one black pair?
Eileen: No, I want only one pair. I want to look at these.
Listen to some sentences again as Martin and Eileen talk about things they want:
Martin: I want to buy a shirt. What do you want to buy?
Eileen: I want to buy a new dress. Do you want a casual shirt?
Martin: Yes, I want a tennis shirt. Do you want a dress for the office?
Can you tell Martin what you want?
Martin: I want a new shirt. What do you want?
You: (I want a/an ...)
Martin: Eileen wants to buy a new dress. What do you want to buy?
You: (I want to buy a/an ...)
Martin: She wants brown or black pants. What color do you want?
You: (I want ... pants)
Martin: I want some coffee.
Eileen: I want some coffee too.
Martin: I want to find a coffee shop. Do you see one?
Eileen: There is a coffee shop on Tenth Street.
Martin: Where is Tenth Street?
Eileen: Straight ahead.
Martin: Do you want to go there?
Eileen: Of course. They have very good cake too. I want some cake. Do you like your new shirt?
Martin: Yes, I like it. I want to wear it next week. I'm going to play tennis on Thursday evening. I'm going to wear it then.