English for All

Lesson 97: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 6)
  • Lesson 28 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

emigrant1 ['emigrənt] - эмигрант
freedom2 ['fri:dəm] - свобода
fuel3 [fju:əl] - топливо
horror4 ['hɒrə] - ужас
immigrant1 ['imigrənt] - иммигрант
signal ['signəl] - сигнал
terror4 ['terə(r)] - ужас
employ5 [im'plɔi] - использовать, нанимать
persuade6 [pə(r)'sweid] - убедить
revolt7 [ri'vəʊlt] - восставать
national8 ['næʃnəl] - национальный

1 - существительные emigrant и immigrant многие путают даже в родном языке. Здесь ситуация точно такая же как со словами "экспорт" (вывоз) и "импорт (ввоз). То есть emigrants - это те люди, которые выехали в другую страну на ПМЖ ("утечка мозгов" в 90-х годах), a immigrants - это те люди, которые приезжают в страну (народ Средней Азии в России на заработках).

2 - существительное freedom много раз встречалось в наших уроках. Пришла пора выучить его. Оно образуется от известного нам прилагательного free с помощью суффикса -dom.

3 - существительное fuel соответствует русскому "топливо", то есть материал, сжигая который, получают энергию - газ, бензин, уголь.

4 - существительные horror и terror являются образующими словами, изученных ранее прилагательных horrible и terrible, и их отличие точно такое же. Они в принципе являются синонимами, но horror может также нести в себе оттенок отвращение.

Американское произношение существительного horror: ['hɔ:r]

5 - глагол employ немного похож на изученный ранее глагол hire, и означает "давать кому-либо работу, и платить за нее деньги". Он часто встречается в пассивном залоге как "быть занятым в" с предлогом in:

I was employed in repairing my house. - Я был занят ремонтом моего дома.

От этого глагола образуется существительные:

  • employer ([im'plɔiə(r)] ) - человек или организация, которые нанимают людей (работодатель);

  • employment ([im'plɔimənt] ) - состояние, когда субъект имеет оплачиваемую работу (занятость).

6 - если вы пытаетесь убедить кого-либо сделать что-то, то с глаголом persuade возможны две конструкции: инфинитив или герундий.

I persuaded him to do something.
I persuaded him into doing something.

7 - основным значением глагола revolt является "бунтовать, восставать". Он часто используется с предлогом against, если говорится "против" чего происходит действие. Также он означает "чувствовать отвращение", и в этом значение после него стоит предлог at, если говорится что вызывает у вас отвращение.

People revolted against these cruel laws. - Люди восстали против этих жестоких законов.
She revolted at the sight of their unwashed hands. - Она чувствовала отвращение от вида их немытых рук.

Хотя последнее предложение лучше написать в пассивном залоге:

She was revolted by the sight of their unwashed hands.

От глагола revolt образуется существительное revolution ([revə'lu:ʃn] ), которое означает "революция" (во власти, науке, технике ...).

8 - прилагательное national образуется от изученного ранее существительного nation с помощью суффикса -al. Обратите внимание на изменение произношения гласного звука в корне слова: ['neiʃn] и ['næʃnəl].

Look at these new words in sentences:

The emmigrant feels freedom in that country.
Эмиграет чувствует свободу в той стране.
The authority fled in terror when the revolution began.
Власть бежала в ужасе, когда революция началась.
The employer persuaded them not to employ the cheapest immigrants.
Работодатель убедил их не нанимать самых дешевых иммигрантов.
People screamed in horror when they heard the new fuel price.
Народ кричали в ужасе, когда они услышали новую цену на топливо.
We waited for a signal to begin the revolution.
Мы ждали сигнала, чтобы начать революцию.
Our employer persuaded everybody not to revolt against his changes.
Наш работодатель убедил каждого не восставать против его изменений.
You can't use such loud signals in the national park.
Вы не можете использовать такие громкие сигналы в национальном парке.
Citizens have already felt the terror of the revolution.
Горожане уже почувствовали ужас революции.
We persuaded this emigrant into returning in our country.
Мы убедили этого эмигранта вернуться в нашу страну.
Our freedom is limited only by our mind.
Наша свобода ограничена только нашим разумом.
We have to find a new safe fuel if we want to save our world.
Мы должны найти новое безопасное топливо, если мы хотим сохранить наш мир.
Workers are going to revolt against his employers.
Работники собираются восстать против их работодателей.
Nobody understood his signals.
Никто не понимал его сигналов.
Their emigrants wear national suits.
Их эмигранты носят национальные костюмы.
The horror of children scared adults.
Ужас детей напугал взрослых.
Our department tries to solve the employment problems of immigrants.
Наш департамент пытается решить проблемы занятости иммигрантов.

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 6)

CHAPTER SEVEN

A call for help

The troubles in France continued. The citizens of France had fought to win power, and now they used it. Castles were burned, laws were changed, and the rich and powerful nobles died - their heads cut off by that terrible new machine of death, the Guillotine. In Paris the King was put in prison, and in 1792 the people of France sent him to the Guillotine. as well. The French Revolution was now three years old, but there were more years of terror to come.

Not all the rich nobles had died. Some had escaped to England; some had even sent or brought their money to London before the Revolution began. And Tellson's Bank, which the French emigrants used, had become a meeting-place where they could hear and talk about the latest news from France.

One wet August day Mr Lorry sat at his desk in the bank, talking to Charles Darnay. The years since Charles's marriage had seen the arrival of a daughter, little Lucie, who was now nine years old. Dr Manette had continued in good health, and at the centre of that warm family circle was always Lucie - a loving daughter, wife, mother, and a kind-hearted friend. Even Sydney Carton, though his old, bad ways were unchanged, was a family friend - and very much a favourite with little Lucie.

But at this moment Charles Darnay was trying very hard to persuade his old friend Mr Lorry not to go to France.

"It's too dangerous. The weather is not good, the roads are bad, think of your age," he said.

"My dear Charles," said the banker. "You think that, at nearly eighty years of age, I'm too old. But that's exactly why I must go. I have the experience, I know the business. My work is to find and hide papers that might be dangerous to our customers. And anyway, Jerry Cruncher goes with me. He'll take good care of my old bones."

"I wish I could go," said Charles restlessly. "I feel sorry for the people in France, and perhaps I could help them. Only last night, when I was talking to Lucie - "

"Talking to Lucie," repeated Mr Lorry. "You talk about your lovely wife at the same time as you talk about going to France. You must not go. Your life is here, with your family."

"Well, I'm not going to France. But you are, and I'm worried about you."

Just at that moment a bank clerk put an old, unopened letter on Mr Lorry's desk, and Darnay happened to see the name on it: The Marquis of Evremonde, at Tellson's Bank, London. Since his uncle's death, this was Darnay's real name. On the morning of his wedding to Lucie he had told Dr Manette, but the Doctor had made him promise to keep his name secret. Not even Lucie or Mr Lorry knew.

"We can't find this Marquis," said the clerk.

"I know where to find him," said Darnay. "Shall I take the letter?"

"That would be very kind," said Mr Lorry.

As soon as he had left the bank, Darnay opened the letter. It was from Monsieur Gabelle, who had been arrested and taken to Paris.

Monsieur, once the Marquis

I am in prison, and I may lose my life, because I worked for a landowner who has left France. You told me to work for the people and not against them, and I have done this. But no one believes me. They say only that I worked for an emigrant, and where is that emigrant? Oh Monsieur, please help me, I beg you!

This cry for help made Darnay very unhappy. After the death of the Marquis, he had told Gabelle to do his best for the people. But now Gabelle was in prison, just because he was employed by a nobleman. It was clear to Darnay that he must go to Paris. He did not think that he would be in danger, as he had done everything he could to help the people of his village. He hoped that he would be able to save his old servant.

That night Charles Darnay sat up late, writing two letters. One was to his wife, Lucie; the other was to her father, Dr Manette. He told them where he had gone and why, and he promised that he would write to them from France. He had left secretly, he wrote, to save them from worrying.

The next day he went out, without saying anything to them of his plans. He kissed his wife and his daughter, and said that he would be back soon. And then he began his journey to Paris.

When he arrived in France, Darnay found that he could travel only very, very slowly towards Paris. The roads were bad and every town, every village had its citizens with guns who stopped all travellers, asked them questions, looked at their papers, made them wait or threw them in prison, turned them back or sent them on their way. And it was all done in the name of freedom - the new Freedom of France.

Darnay soon realized that he could not turn back until he had reached Paris and proved himself to be a good citizen, not an enemy of the people.

On his third night in France he was woken by an official and three other men with guns.

"Emigrant," said the official. "These three soldiers will take you to Paris, and you must pay them."

Darnay could only obey and at three o'clock in the morning he left with three soldiers to guard him. Even with them he was sometimes in danger; the people in the towns and villages all seemed to be very angry with emigrants, but finally they arrived safely at the gates of Paris. Darnay had to wait a long time while officials carefully read his papers, which explained the reasons for his journey. One official, seeing Gabelle's letter, looked up at Darnay in great surprise, but said nothing. Another official asked roughly, "Are you Evremonde?"

"Yes," replied Darnay.

"You will go to the prison of La Force!"

"But why?" asked Darnay. "Under what law?"

"We have new laws, Evremonde," said the official sharply, "And emigrants have no rights. You will be held in secret. Take him away."

As Darnay left, the first official said quietly to him, "Are you the man who married the daughter of Dr Manette?"

"Yes," replied Darnay in surprise.

"My name is Defarge and I have a wine-shop in Saint Antoine. Perhaps you have heard of me."

"Yes. My wife came to your house to find her father."

"Why did you come back to France? It will be very bad for you."

Darnay was taken to the prison of La Force and put in a cold empty room with a locked door and bars across the windows. He thought of Dr Manette and his many years alone, forgotten, in the Bastille.

"Now I, too, have been buried alive," he thought.






Guillotine ['giləti:n] -
гильотина






























marquise [ma:(r)'ki:z] - маркиз

































































bar - зд. прут
_______________________________________________

Lesson 28 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner is visiting Yellowstone National Park. He talks to some visitors of the park about what they like and what they do not like. You will learn to express your own dislikes.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 28, Part 1:

Guide: Good morning. I'm Judy. I'm your guide. This is Martin. He's a reporter. He's writing a story about visitors to the park. He's going to ask some questions.

Martin: Good morning.

Group: Good morning. Hi. How are you? Hello.

Guide: We are going to walk for three hours this morning. Are you ready?

Group: Yes. OK. Let's go.

Guide: Please stay together. I want to see all of you. Let's go.

Martin: Judy, do you like your work?

Guide: Of course. I like the country. I like the forests. I like the mountains and rivers. I like the clean air.

Martin: Where are you from?

Guide: I'm from Los Angeles ([lɒs 'ændʒələs] - Лос-Анджелес). I don't like cities. I don't like hot places.

Martin: When did you come here?

Guide: Four years ago. I lived in Denver (['denvə(r) - Денвер) for two years. I didn't like Denver. It's a very big city.

Martin: Do you like being a guide?

Guide: Very much. I'm outside all day. I don't like being inside.

Martin: Where do you live?

Guide: I live near the park. Please stay with me.

Martin: I'm going to talk to some of the other people. See you later.

Martin: Hi. Is this your first visit to the park?

Male: Yes, it is.

Martin: Do you like parks?

Male: Yes, we like parks. We live in the East, but we like the parks in the West. This is my wife.

Martin: Hello. How are you?

Female: Fine thanks.

Martin: What do you like here?

Female: I like the animals.

Martin: What don't you like?

Female: I don't like the people.

Male: There are many people.

Female: I don't like the bugs.

Martin: What don't you like?

Male: I don't like camping.

Female: But I like camping. Do you like camping?

Martin: No, I don't like camping.

Female: Men like camping.

Male: I don't.

Martin: I don't.

We can dislike things, events, activities, and people. Listen to some sentences about dislikes:

Guide: I don't like cities. I don't like hot places. I don't like Denver. I don't like being inside.

Martin: What don't you like?

Female: I don't like the people. I don't like bugs. Do you like camping?

Martin: No, I don't like camping.

Can you answer some of Martin's questions?

Martin: Do you like camping?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like bugs?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like cities?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like the country?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like walking?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Thank you for your time. See you later.

Male: OK.

Martin: Hello. How are you?

2nd Female: I don't like walking.

Martin: Don't you like the park?

2nd Female: I love the park. But I don't like walking. I like driving.

2nd Male: She doesn't like walking. She likes sitting.

2nd Female: He doesn't like the park. He likes cities.

Martin: See you later.

In the second part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner is talking with visitors of Yellowstone National Park. They continue to discuss the things they do not like. You will learn to tell what you dislike.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 28, Part 2:

Martin: Good afternoon.

Guide: Did you like your walk this morning?

Martin: Yes, I did. Do you walk every day?

Guide: Yes. I take visitors.

Martin: Do you like it?

Guide: Of course. I like being outside.

Martin: Are you going to walk this afternoon?

Guide: Yes. I'm going to take some people to the river.

Martin: May I go with you?

Guide: Of course. Come with me now. I'm going to meet them over there.

Martin: Thanks.

Guide: I don't like being late. Good afternoon. I'm Judy. I'm your guide this afternoon. We're going to have a fast walk to the river.

Male: I can't walk fast.

Guide: Don't you like to walk fast?

Male: I like to, but I can't walk fast.

Guide: OK. We won't walk too fast. This is Martin. He's a reporter. He's going with us.

Martin: Good afternoon. I want to ask some questions. May I walk with you?

Male: I don't like reporters.

Martin: Oh??

Male: They ask too many questions.

Female: You don't know any reporters.

Male: I know the reporters on TV. I don't like them.

Martin: What questions don't you like?

Male: I don't like questions about my family. I don't like questions about my work.

Female: That's everything!

Martin: I'm not going to ask about your family or your work.

Male: Good.

Female: I like reporters. You can ask me anything.

Martin: Where are you from?

Female: We're from St. Louis ([seint lu:is] - Сент Луис).

Martin: Do you like cities?

Female: I like St. Louis. I don't like New York ([nju: jɔ:(r)k] - Нью-Йорк). I don't like Detroit ([dit'rɔit] - Детройт). I like some cities.

Martin: What do you like?

Male: I like fishing.

Martin: Do you like fishing in the ocean?

Male: I don't like fishing in the ocean. There is no ocean in St. Louis. I like fishing in the river.

Female: He doesn't like fishing in small rivers. He likes fishing in big rivers.

Martin: Do you like fishing in the Mississippi ([misi'sipi] - Миссисипи) River?

Male: Of course. I live in St. Louis. Slow down, please.

Guide: OK. We're almost there.

Male: Where?

Female: At the river.

Listen to some questions and answers about likes and dislikes:

Martin: Do you like cities?

Female: No, I don't like cities.

Martin: Don't you like St. Louis?

Female: Yes, I do. But I don't like New York.

Martin: What do you like?

Male: I like fishing.

Martin: What don't you like?

Male: I don't like running.

Martin: Don't you like sports?

Male: No, I don't.

Can you answer questions about your likes and dislikes?

Martin: I like music. Do you like music?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: I don't like camping. Do you like camping?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: I don't like bugs. What don't you like?

You: (I don't like ...)

Martin: I like baseball. What do you like?

You: (I like ...)

Martin: I like this.

Female: It's beautiful! Isn't it beautiful?

Male: Yes, it is. Look, look at the fish!

Guide: Do you like fishing?

Male: Yes, I do.

Guide: I don't like fishing. I like walking. I like moving. I don't like sitting.

Female: I don't like fishing. I can't talk. I like talking.

Martin: Are we going to sit here?

Male: Let's watch the river.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

population - население ([pɒpju'leiʃn])
thunder - гром (['θʌndə(r)])
classical - классический (['klæsikəl])
revenge - месть, мстить ([ri'vendʒ])
fetch - получать ([fetʃ])
flame - пламя ([fleim])
popular - популярный (['pɒpjələ(r)])
science - наука (['saiəns])
citizen - гражданин (['sitizn])
echo - эхо (['ekəʊ])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

terror - ужас (['terə(r)])
employer - работадатель, наниматель ([im'plɔiə(r)])
revolt - восставать ([ri'vəʊlt])
emigrant - эмигрант (['emigrənt])
horror - ужас (['hɒrə(r)])
persuade - убедить ([pə(r)'sweid])
national - национальный (['næʃnəl])
revolution - революция ([revə'lu:ʃn])
fuel - топливо ([fju:əl])
employ - использовать, нанимать ([im'plɔi])
signal - сигнал (['signəl])
employment - занятость ([im'plɔimənt])
freedom - свобода (['fri:dəm])
immigrant - иммигрант (['imigrənt])

The new verbs of this lesson are employ, persuade and revolt. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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