English for All

Lesson 96: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 5)
  • Lesson 27 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

citizen1 ['sitizn] - гражданин
echo ['ekəʊ] - эхо
flame [fleim] - пламя
population2 [pɒpju'leiʃn] - население
revenge3 [ri'vendʒ] - месть, мстить
science4 ['saiəns] - наука
thunder ['θʌndə(r)] - гром
fetch5 [fetʃ] - получать
classical ['klæsikəl] - классический
popular6 ['pɒpjələ(r)] - популярный

1 - существительное citizen образуется от изученного ранее city, поэтому означает не только "гражданин" какой-либо страны, но и может быть citizen of London, Moscow, Paris (горожанин).

2 - существительное population буквально переводится на русский язык как "популяция" - сообщество живых существ. Но в английском языке оно чаще переводится как "население" определенного региона.

3 - существительное revenge часто встречается в выражение to take revenge on/against somebody/something, что означает мстить против кого-/чего-либо. Если говорится "за" что происходит месть, то используется предлог for как с существительным, так и с глаголом:

He took revenge on/against his wife for her lie. - Он мстил своей жене за ее ложь.
The neighbour decided to revenge them for their party last night. - Сосед решил отомстить им за их вечеринку прошлой ночью.

4 - в предыдущих уроках мы изучили слово scientist. В этом уроке пришло время выучить его образующее слово science.

5 - глагол fetch очень похож на изученный ранее глагол get, и они используются в одной и той же ситуации, только разными носителями языка: сходить куда-либо чтобы взять что-то, и вернуться назад. Get используют американские носители, а fetch используется британцами.

Can you get (USA)/fetch (British) a glass of water from the kitchen? - Ты можешь принести стакан воды с кухни.

6 - от прилагательного popular образуется наречие образа действия popularly с помощью суффикса -ly:

It is popularly to attend cinemas. - Это популярно посещать кинотеатры.

Look at these new words in sentences:

The citizen couldn't fetch help.
Гражданин не мог получить помощь.
We have seen rising flames after loud thunder.
Мы увидели поднимающиеся языки пламени после громкого грома.
The citizens of our city like to wear classical clothes.
Жители нашего города любят носить классическую одежду.
This science studies the populations of birds.
Эта наука изучает популяции птиц.
Why is this restaurant so popular?
Почему этот ресторан такой популярный?
The nobleman heard the echo of the citizen rage.
Аристократ слышал эхо гнева граждан.
He fetched all his classical suits.
Он получил все свои классические костюмы.
She took your phone in revenge.
Она взяла твой телефон в отместку.
Nobody believes that your activity is science.
Никто не верит, что твоя деятельность - это наука.
We should count the population of this city.
Нам нужно посчитать население этого города.
Our university teaches a lot of classical sciences.
Наш университет учит многим классическим наукам.
In the mountains we were still hearing the echo of the thunder.
В горах мы все еще слышали эхо грома.
Citizens wanted to revenge their authority for spoilt holidays.
Жители хотели отомстить их властям за испорченные праздники.
There was a flame of love between us.
Между нами было пламя любви.
The classical music will always be popular among our citizens.
Классическая музыка всегда будет популярна среди наших граждан.
Revenge is never best way.
Месть никогда не является лучшим путем.
This science explores the population of different countries.
Эта наука изучает население различных стран.
You can't fetch everything.
Ты не можешь получить все.

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 5)


Stormy years in France

In Monsieur Defarge's wine-shop in Saint Antoine customers came and went all the time. They came to drink the thin, rough wine, but more often they came to listen and to talk, and to wait for news.

One day there were more customers than usual. Defarge had been away for three days, and when he returned that morning, he brought a stranger with him, a man who repaired roads.

"Madame," Defarge said to his wife, "This man, who is called Jacques, has walked a long way with me." One customer got up and went out. "This mender of roads," continued Defarge, "Who is called Jacques, is a good man. Give him something to drink."

A second man got up and went out. The man who repaired roads sat down and drank. A third man got up and went out.

"Have you finished, my friend?" said Defarge. "Then come and see the room I promised you."

They went upstairs, to the room where Dr Manette had sat making shoes. The three men who had left the wine-shop were waiting. Defarge spoke to them.

"No names. You are Jacques One, Jacques Two and Jacques Three. I am Jacques Four. This is Jacques Five. He brings us news of our poor friend Gaspard, whose child was killed by the Marquis's coach a year ago."

"I first saw Gaspard," said Jacques Five, "Holding on under the Marquis's coach as it drove into our village. He ran away, but that night the Marquis was murdered. Gaspard disappeared and was only caught a few weeks ago. The soldiers brought him into the village and hanged him. And they have left his body hanging in the village square, where the women go to fetch water, and our children play."

When Jacques Five had left them, Jacques One said to his friends, "What do you say? Shall we put their names on the list?"

"Yes, all of them. The castle and all of the family of Evremonde."

"Is the list safe?" asked Jacques Two.

"Yes, my friend," said Defarge. "My wife remembers everything. But more than that, every name is carefully knitted into her work. Nothing can be forgotten."

A few days later Defarge reported to his wife some news from his friend "Jacques" in the police.

"A new spy has been sent to Saint Antoine. His name is Barsad, John Barsad. He's English."

"What does he look like? Do we know?"

"He's about forty years old, quite tall, black hair, thin face," said Defarge.

"Good," said his wife. "I'll put him on the list tomorrow. But you seem tired tonight. And sad."

"Well," said Defarge, "It is a long time."

"It takes time to prepare for change. The crimes against the people of France cannot be revenged in a day."

"But we may not live to see the end."

"Even if that happens,'" replied Madame Defarge, "We shall help it to come. But I believe that we shall see the day of our revenge against these hated noblemen."

The next day a stranger came into the wine-shop. At once, Madame Defarge picked up a rose from the table and put it in her hair. As soon as they saw this, the customers stopped talking and, one by one, without hurrying, left the wine-shop.

"Good day, Madame," said the stranger.

"Good day, Monsieur," said Madame Defarge, but to herself she said, "About forty years old, tall, black hair, thin face. Yes, I know who you are, Mr John Barsad."

"Is business good?" asked the stranger.

"Business is bad. The people are so poor." Madame Defarge looked over to the door. "Ah, here is my husband."

"Good day, Jacques," said the spy.

"You're wrong," said Defarge, staring at him. "That's not my name. I am Ernest Defarge."

"It's all the same," said the spy easily. "I remember something about you, Monsieur Defarge. You took care of Dr Manette when he came out of the Bastille."

"That's true," said Defarge.

"Have you heard much from Dr Manette and his daughter? They're in England now."

"No, not for a long time."

"She was married recently. Not to an Englishman, but to a Frenchman. It's quite interesting when you remember poor Gaspard. Miss Manette has married the nephew of the Marquis that Gaspard killed. Her new husband is really the new Marquis, but he prefers to live unknown in England. He's not a Marquis there, just Mr Charles Darnay."

Monsieur Defarge was not happy at this news. When the spy had gone, he said to his wife, "Can it be true? If it is, I hope that Miss Manette keeps her husband away from France."

"Who knows what will happen?" replied Madame Defarge. "I only know that the name of Evremonde is in my list, and for good reason." She went on calmly knitting, adding name after name to her list of the enemies of the people.

Time passed, and Madame Defarge still knitted. The women of Saint Antoine also knitted, and the thin hungry faces of Jacques and his brothers became darker and angrier. The noise of the coming storm in Paris was growing louder.

It began one summer day in the streets of Saint Antoine, around Defarge's wine-shop, with a great crowd of people. A crowd who carried guns, knives, sticks, even stones - anything that could be a weapon. An angry crowd who shouted and screamed, who were ready to fight and to die in battle.

"Friends and citizens!" shouted Defarge. "We are ready! To the Bastille!"

The crowd began to move, like the waves of the sea.

"Follow me, women!" cried Madame Defarge. A long sharp knife shone brightly in her hand. "We can kill as well as any man!"

The living sea of angry people ran through Saint Antoine to the Bastille, and soon the hated prison was ringing with the noise of battle. Fire and smoke climbed up the high stone walls and the thunder of the guns echoed through the city.

Four terrible and violent hours. Then a white flag appeared above the walls and the gates were opened. The Bastille had been taken by the people of Paris! Soon the crowds were inside the building itself, and shouting "Free the prisoners!" But Defarge put his strong hand on the shoulder of one of the soldiers.

"Show me the North Tower. Take me to One Hundred and Five, North Tower! Quickly!"

"Follow me," said the frightened man, and Defarge and Jacques Three went with him through the dark prison, past heavy closed doors, up stone stairs, until they came to a low door. It was a small room, with dark stone walls and only one very small window, too high for anyone to look out. Defarge looked carefully along the walls.

"There, look there, Jacques Three," he cried.

"A.M.!" whispered Jacques.

"A.M. Alexandre Manette," said Defarge softly. "Let us go now." But before they left, they searched the room and the furniture very carefully, looking for small hiding-places. Then they returned to the crowds below. The Bastille and its officers were now in the hands of the people, and the people wanted revenge, and blood.

"At last, it has begun, my dear," said Defarge to his wife. It was the fourteenth of July, 1789.

In the village where the Marquis had lived, and where Gaspard had died, life was hard. Everything was old and tired and broken down - the people, the land, the houses, the animals. In the past everything and everybody had had to work for the Marquis, and he had given nothing in return.

But now, strangers were travelling about the country, strangers who were poor, like the people, but who talked about new ideas - ideas which had started in Paris and were now running like fire across the country.

The road-mender, who had brought the news of Gaspard to Paris, still worked repairing the roads. One day a stranger came to him as he worked on the road outside the village.

"Jacques," said the stranger. He shook the road-mender's hand, and turned to look at the Marquis's castle on the hill. "It's tonight, Jacques," he went on quietly. "The others will meet me here."

It was very dark that night and the wind was strong. No one saw the four men who came quietly to the castle and said nothing. But soon the castle itself could be seen in the dark sky. The windows became bright; smoke and yellow flames climbed into the sky. Monsieur Gabelle called loudly for help, but the people in the village watched and did nothing to save the castle where the Marquis had lived.

mender [mendə(r)] -
ремонтный рабочий

marquise [ma:(r)'ki:z] - маркиз


Lesson 27 from radio station "VOA"

In this English USA lesson, Martin Learner attends a tennis match. He talks with a tennis player and his friends about what sports* and leisure activities they like. You will learn to express your own likes.

*sports - используется американскими носителями языка как коллективное существительное, означающее все виды спорта.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 27, Part 1:

Martin: Thank you for talking with me, Daoud.

Daoud: You're welcome. These are my friends. This is Juma. And this is Mona.

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner.

Daoud: Martin is writing a story about me. He's a reporter.

Mona: Hi.

Juma: Hello. What newspaper do you write for?

Martin: I'm not a newspaper reporter. I'm a radio reporter.

Juma: Oh, I see. Do you like tennis?

Martin: Yes, I do. I play tennis. But I don't play very well. Do you play tennis?

Juma: No, I don't.

Martin: Mona, do you like tennis?

Mona: I like to watch. I don't play. Daoud is the only tennis player.

Martin: Daoud, do you like other sports?

Daoud: I like some sports.

Martin: What sports do you like?

Daoud: I like to watch track. I like the running and jumping.

Martin: Do you like track, Juma?

Juma: Yes, I do. I was a runner in school.

Martin: Do you run now?

Juma: No, I don't. I like to watch running.

Martin: Do you like other sports, Mona?

Mona: I like to watch. I don't do anything.

Martin: You don't swim, or run, or play tennis?

Mona: No, I don't do anything.

Martin: What do you like to watch?

Mona: I like to watch tennis. I like basketball (['ba:skitbɔ:l] - баскетбол).

Martin: What other sports do you play, Daoud?

Daoud: I run.

Martin: Do you like running?

Daoud: Sometimes. I run every day. It's good for my tennis.

Juma: I run with Daoud sometimes.

Martin: Do you run, Mona?

Mona: No, I don't run.

Martin: What do you like to do?

Mona: I like to read. I like to cook. I like to travel. I like to shop.

Juma: Yes, she likes to shop.

Martin: What do you like to shop for?

Mona: I like to shop for clothes. Daoud likes to shop too.

Martin: What do you like to shop for, Daoud?

Daoud: I like to shop for clothes too.

Martin: Daoud, you're a very good tennis player. When did you begin?

Daoud: I began when I was 10 years old. I lived in Virginia ([və(r)'dʒiniə] - Вирджиния). I began in school.

Martin: Did you like to play tennis?

Daoud: Sometimes.

Martin: You liked to play sometimes?

Daoud: I liked other sports too. I liked swimming in the summer. And I liked running. And other things.

We talk about liking things, events, activities, and people. Listen to some questions and answers again:

Juma: Do you like tennis?

Martin: Yes, I do. Mona, do you like tennis?

Mona: I like to watch.

Martin: Daoud, do you like other sports?

Daoud: I like some sports.

Martin: What sports do you like?

Daoud: I like to watch track. I like the running and the jumping.

Martin: Do you like track, Juma?

Daoud: Yes, I do.

Can you answer some of Martin's questions?

Martin: Do you like sports?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like tennis?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like swimming?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like running?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you like track?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: What tennis players do you like, Daoud?

Daoud: I like many tennis players. I like Jimmy Connors. I like Andre Agassi.

Martin: What tennis players do you like, Mona?

Mona: I like Daoud.

Juma: We all like Daoud!

In the second part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner continues to talk with Daoud, the tennis player, and his friends. You will learn to answer questions about what you like.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 27, Part 2:

Martin: Do you like women tennis players?

Daoud: Of course I like women tennis players.

Martin: Who do you like?

Daoud: I like Stefi Graf. She's very good. I like Monica Seles. I like Martina Navratilova.

Mona: I like Martina too.

Martin: Mona, do you like music?

Mona: Yes, I do.

Martin: What kind of music do you like?

Mona: I like old music.

Martin: What do you mean? Old music?

Mona: I like Elton John.

Juma: I like Elvis Presley.

Martin: Daoud, do you like music?

Daoud: Sometimes. I listen to music on the radio. I like some new music.

Martin: Do you like classical music?

Daoud: Opera (['ɒpərə] - опера)? Symphony (['simfəni] - оркестр)?

Martin: Yes, that kind of music.

Daoud: No, I don't like that kind of music. I don't understand that kind of music. I like popular music and folk music.

Martin: What kind of folk music do you like?

Daoud: I like music from my country.

Mona: Your country is the United States.

Daoud: I know. I mean my parents' country.

Martin: Where did your parents come from?

Daoud: They came from Afghanistan ([æfgæni'sta:n] - Афганистан).

Martin: Did you travel last year?

Daoud: Yes, I did. I went to many cities in the United States. I traveled to Europe. And I traveled to Asia.

Martin: Did you go to Afghanistan?

Daoud: No, I didn't. I traveled to Australia too. I like Australia.

Juma: I like Australia too. I went with Daoud last year.

Martin: Did you go to Australia, Mona?

Mona: No, I didn't. I'm going to go to Europe next year.

Martin: What countries are you going to visit?

Mona: I don't know. I want to visit France and Italy.

Martin: Juma, what do you do?

Juma: I'm an engineer ([endʒi'niə(r)] - инженер).

Martin: When did you meet Daoud?

Juma: We went to school together. Mona went with us too.

Martin: Where did you go to school?

Juma: In Virginia. We lived in Arlington (['a;(r)liŋtən] - Арлингтон), Virginia. Mona and I are cousins.

Martin: Is Daoud your cousin?

Juma: No, he isn't. He's only a friend.

Daoud: My father and Juma's father were friends too. They went to school together in Afghanistan.

Martin: Did you like school?

Daoud: Yes, I did.

Martin: What did you like?

Daoud: I liked science and sports.

Can you answer questions and tell others what you like? Listen to the questions carefully:

Daoud: I like to play tennis. What sport do you like?

You: (I like ... .)

Daoud: I like Jimmy Connors. What tennis player do you like?

You: (I like ... .)

Juma: I like Elvis Pressley. What singer do you like?

You: (I like ... .)

Mona: I like new music. What kind of music do you like?

You: (I like ... .)

Martin: Juma, do you like your work?

Juma: Yes, I do. I like engineering.

Martin: Mona, what do you do?

Mona: I'm a social worker.

Martin: Where do you work?

Mona: I work in Arlington.

Martin: Where do you live?

Mona: I live with my parents.

Martin: Do you like your work?

Mona: Yes, I do.

Martin: Thanks for your time, Daoud. Let's watch the tennis match. Thanks Juma. Thank you Mona.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

memorable - памятный (['memərəbl])
replace - заменять ([ri'pleis])
habit - привычка (['hæbit])
clerk - клерк, служащий ([cla:k*])
memory - память (['meməri])
replacement - замена ([ri'pleismənt])
insurance - страхование, страховка ([in'ʃʊərəns])
pattern - шаблон, модель (['pætn])
apply - применять, обращаться ([ə'plai])
licence - лицензия (['laisəns])
purchase - покупка, покупать (['pε:(r)tʃəs])
application - приложение, заявление ([æpli'keiʃn])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

flame - пламя ([fleim])
science - наука (['saiəns])
classical - классический (['klæsikəl])
echo - эхо (['ekəʊ])
revenge - месть, мстить ([ri'vendʒ])
fetch - получать ([fetʃ])
citizen - гражданин (['sitizn])
population - население ([pɒpju'leiʃn])
thunder - гром (['θʌndə(r)])
popular - популярный (['pɒpjələ(r)])

The new verbs of this lesson are fetch and revenge. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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