English for All

Lesson 95: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 4)
  • Lesson 26 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

clerk1 [cla:k*] - клерк, служащий
habit ['hæbit] - привычка
insurance2 [in'ʃʊərəns] - страхование, страховка
licence3 ['laisəns] - лицензия
memory4 ['meməri] - память
pattern5 ['pætn*] - шаблон, модель
purchase6 ['pε:(r)tʃəs] - покупка, покупать
vehicle7 [vi:əkl] - транспортное средство
apply8 [ə'plai] - применять, обращаться
replace9 [ri'pleis] - заменять

1 - американское произношение существительного clerk соответствует правилам чтения: [klε:rk].

2 - существительное insurance соответствует русскому "страховка" в обоих значениях: как безопасность в случае потери чего-либо и как вещь, защищающая от травмы.

3 - существительное licence означает "лицензия", то есть разрешение от властей на владение чем-либо или осуществление какой-либо деятельности. Наиболее часто, в повседневной деятельности, мы встречаем выражение driver's licence, перевод которого, думаю, вам понятен. Вы можете встретить написание слова license, что для британских носителей языка означает глагол "выдавать лицензию", а для американских носителей - это одновременно и существительное, и глагол.

4 - существительные memory означает не только привычная нам, благодаря современным устройствам, "память", но и немного не логичное для нас значение "воспоминание":

My memory is full. - Моя память заполнена.
I tried to forget all memories about you. - Я пытался забыть все воспоминания о тебе.

От memory образуется прилагательное memorable (['memərəbl] - памятный ) с помощью суффикса -able.

5 - существительное pattern означает "образец, шаблон", на основание которого повторяются, копируются другие, такие же вещи, действия. В его американском произношении появляется не только звук [r]: ['pætərn].

6 - глагол purchase является синонимом изученного ранее глагола buy, но является более формальным.

7 - существительное vehicle означает любое транспортное средство для перевозки людей или товара (автомобиль, мотоцикл, корабль, самолет, телега, велосипед ...).

8 - одно из значений глагола apply: "применять", и оно часто встречается в компьютерных программах ("применить изменение, действие ..."). Второе его значение: "обращаться" - делать формальный запрос. С ним используется предлог to, если говорится "к" кому обращается объект (независимо от положение прямого дополнения) и предлог for, если говорится "для" чего обращается объект:

A woman applied to the authority for help. - Женщина обратилась к властям за помощью.

Возможно именно от него (судя по написанию и схожести значений) происходит существительное: application ([æpli'keiʃn] ), одно из значений которого - "заявление", то есть формальное обращение чаще в письменном виде. Второе значение все больше распространено в современном мире: "приложение" - программа на устройстве, для какой-либо цели. Как мне кажется, от него образуется сокращение app, так распространенное на наших смартфонах (downloaded apps), которое значит почти то же самое.

9 - с глаголом replace, образованным от ранее изученного слова place, с помощью префикса re-, можно использовать два предлога by/with в активном и пассивном залогах, если вы говорите на что заменяете объект:

We replace people with/by machines. - Мы заменяем людей машинами.
People are replaced with/by machines. - Люди заменяются машинами.

Но есть ситуации когда разобраться в смысле предложения сложнее:

I replaced you with/by Mark. - Я заменил тебя Марком.
You were replaced with/by Mark with/by me. - Ты был заменен Марком мной.

В пассивном залоге путаница происходит даже в переводе: то ли Марк был заменой, которую осуществил я, то ли я был заменой. И здесь разобраться можно только по контексту.

От этого глагола образуется существительное replacement ([ri'pleismənt] - замена ) с помощью суффикса -ment.

Look at these new words in sentences:

I applied to your department to get a new insurance.
Я обратился в ваш департамент получить новую страховку.
Your memory has a lot of patterns.
Твоя память имеет много шаблонов.
He will replace this clerk with another one because of his bad habits.
Он заменит этого клерка на другого из-за его вредных привычек.
Please give me the pattern of the application.
Пожалуйста дайте мне шаблон заявления.
This clerk has a perfect memory.
У этого клерка отличная память.
My last memories about you are good.
Мои последние воспоминания о тебе хорошие.
She has a habit to check her purchases before leaving a store.
У нее есть привычка проверять покупки перед уходом из магазина.
Did you clean the memory of your phone for this application?
Ты почистил память своего телефона для этого приложения?
Tourists purchased strong insurances to climb this high mountain.
Туристы купили крепкие страховки, чтобы подняться на эту высокую гору.
I never saw such a wonderful vehicle.
Я никогда не видел такого удивительного транспортного средства.
Police arrested him because he didn't have a gun licence.
Полиция арестовала его, потому что у него не было разрешение на оружие.
The clerk applied to his chief for his replacement.
Чиновник обратился к своему чиновнику для своей замены.
This bank doesn't have any licence to take out an insurance.
У этого банка нет лицензии выдавать страховку.
This factory applies a lot of patterns.
Эта фабрика применяет много шаблонов.
Any her purchase requires my money.
Любая ее покупка требует мои деньги.
He has a healthy habit to train every evening.
У него есть здоровая привычка тренироваться каждый вечер.
It is the most memorable day of my life.
Это наиболее памятный день моей жизни.
Every vehicle on city roads must have a licence.
Каждое транспортное средство на городских дорогах должно иметь лицензию.

You can continue reading the text.

Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 4)

CHAPTER FIVE

Two men speak of love

Twelve months after the death of the Marquis in France, Charles Darnay had become a successful teacher of French in London. He had known, when he came to London, that he would have to work hard to earn his living, and he was successful. He was also in love. He had loved Lucie Manette from the time when his life was in danger in the Old Bailey. He had never heard a sound so sweet as her gentle voice; he had never seen a face so beautiful as hers. But he had never spoken to her about his love. The death of his uncle in France had become, over the twelve months, like a dream to him, but he had said nothing to Lucie of his feelings, nor of what had happened. He had good reason for this. But one day in the summer he came to Dr Manette's home in London. He knew that Lucie was out with Miss Pross, and he had decided to speak to her father. Dr Manette was now strong in body and mind, and sad memories of his long years in prison did not come back to him often. When Darnay arrived, the Doctor welcomed him warmly.

"Dr Manette," said Darnay, "I know that Lucie is out. But I have come here today to speak to you."

There was a silence.

"Do you want to speak to me about Lucie?" asked the Doctor, slowly.

"Yes. Dear Dr Manette, I love your daughter dearly. If there was ever love in the world, I love Lucie."

"I believe you," said Dr Manette sadly. "It's very hard for me to speak of her at any time, but I believe you, Charles Darnay. Have you spoken to Lucie about your love?"

"No, never. I know how much your daughter means to you, Dr Manette. Her love for you, and your love for her, these are the greatest things in your life, and in hers. I love Lucie. With all my heart I love her. But I do not want to come between you and her. The two of you will never be separated because of me."

For a moment Dr Manette turned his head away, and his eyes were full of fear, and pain. Then he looked back at Darnay, and tried to smile.

"You have spoken very honestly, Charles," he said. "Have you any reason to believe that Lucie loves you?"

"None!"

"Then what do you want from me?"

"A promise. A promise that if Lucie ever tells you that she loves me, you will not speak against me, and will tell her what I have said. I know that she would never accept me if she believed that it would make you unhappy."

"I can promise you more than that, Charles. If Lucie ever tells me that she loves you, I shall give her to you."

"Thank you, Dr Manette," said Darnay, gratefully. "There is one more thing. My name in England is not my real name. I want to tell you what my real name is, and why I am in England."

"Stop!" said the Doctor. He had even put his hands over his ears. "I don't want to know. Tell me when I ask you. If Lucie agrees to marry you, you shall tell me on the morning of your marriage."

It was dark when Darnay left Dr Manette, and it was some time later when Lucie and Miss Pross came home.

"Father," Lucie called, "Where are you?" She heard no answer, but there were strange sounds coming from her father's bedroom. Frightened, she ran upstairs and found her father, pale and silent, busy at his old prison work of making shoes. The shadow of the Bastille had fallen on him again. She took his arm and spoke gently to him, and together they walked up and down for a long time until at last Dr Manette went quietly to bed.

Although Mr Carton visited Dr Manette's house quite often, he usually said very little when he was there. One day in August he arrived when Dr Manette was out and he was received by Lucie. She had always been a little shy with him, but on that day she noticed something different in his face.

"Aren't you well, Mr Carton?" she asked.

"No, probably not, Miss Manette, but my way of life is not good for my health."

"That seems sad," said Lucie gently. "Why do you not change your way of life?"

"It's too late for that. I shall never be better than I am. But, Miss Manette, there is something that I want to say to you, but I find it so difficult. Will you listen to me?"

"If it will help you, Mr Carton, I will be happy to listen to you," said Lucie, but she was pale and trembling.

"Miss Manette, I know that you could never have feelings of love for me, a man who has spent his life so badly."

"Even without my love, Mr Carton, can I not save you? Can I not help you?"

"No, Miss Manette," said Carton. "Even if it was possible for you to love me, it is too late for me. I would only make you sad, and destroy your life. But it has been a last dream of my heart. To see you and your father together, to see the home that you have made for him - this has brought back old and happier memories for me."

"Can I do nothing to help you?" asked Lucie sadly.

"Only this, Miss Manette. Let me remember that I spoke to you of the feelings of my heart, and that you were kind and gentle towards me."

"Oh, Mr Carton. Try again to change."

"No, Miss Manette, it is too late. My bad habits will never change now. But tell me that you will never speak of what I have said today, not to anyone, not even to the person dearest to you."

"Mr Carton," said Lucie. "This is your secret. No one will ever know of it from me."

"Thank you, Miss Manette. I shall never speak of this again. But in the hour of my death, it will be a happy memory for me that my last words of love were to you."

Lucie had never heard Mr Carton speak like this before. Tears came to her eyes as she thought of his hopeless, miserable life.

"Don't cry," said Sydney Carton. "I am not worth your love. But you should know that for you, or for anyone close to you, I would do anything. Please remember always, that there is a man who would give his life to keep someone you love alive and close to you. Goodbye, Miss Manette."

On the day of Lucie's marriage to Charles Darnay, Mr Lorry and Miss Pross stood, with Lucie, outside the door of Dr Manette's room. Inside, the Doctor and Mr Darnay had been talking together for a long time.

Soon it would be time to leave for the church. Lucie looked very beautiful, and Mr Lorry watched her proudly. He talked about the day, so long ago, when he had brought Lucie, as a baby in his arms, from France to England. Miss Pross, too, had her memories and thought fondly of her brother Solomon. He had stolen money from her many years ago and she had never seen him since then, but she still loved him.

The door of the Doctor's room opened and he came out with Charles Darnay. The Doctor's face was white, but he was calm. He took his daughter's arm and they went out to the waiting coach. The others followed in a second coach and soon, in a nearby church, Lucie Manette and Charles Darnay were married.

After the marriage Lucie and Charles came back to the house for breakfast, and then Lucie had to say goodbye to her father for two weeks - the first time they had not been together since his return from Paris.

When Lucie and Charles had left, Mr Lorry noticed a change in the Doctor. A little sadness was natural, but there was a lost, frightened look in the Doctor's eyes, which worried Mr Lorry very much. When he left to go to Tellson's Bank, he whispered to Miss Pross that he would return as quickly as he could.

Two hours later he hurried back to the house, and Miss Pross met him at the door.

"Oh, what shall we do, Mr Lorry?" she cried. "He doesn't know me, and is making shoes again!"

Mr Lorry went up to the Doctor's room. "Dr Manette, my dear friend. Look at me. Don't you remember me?"

But Dr Manette said nothing and worked on in silence. Once again, he was a prisoner in the Bastille, without friends or family, without even a name of his own. For nine days and nine nights the shoemaker worked on, leaving his table only to sleep, eat, or walk up and down his room. Mr Lorry sat with him night and day, talking gently to him from time to time, trying to bring his friend's mind back to the present.

Then at last, on the tenth morning, the shoe making work was put away, and Dr Alexandre Manette, pale but calm, was his old self again. Lucie was never told, and in the quiet and happy years that followed her marriage, Dr Manette remained strong in mind and body.

_______________________________________________

Lesson 26 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner buys a new car and he applies for a new driver's license, a vehicle license, and insurance. You will learn to answer questions on an application form during an interview. You will see some of the basic English patterns which you have studied.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 26, Part 1:

Clerk: Good morning. May I help you?

Martin: Good morning. I want to apply for a new driver's license.

Clerk: Do you have a driver's license?

Martin: No, I don't. I lost it.

Clerk: You don't want a new license. You want a replacement.

Martin: Pardon me.

Clerk: You want a replacement.

Martin: What's that?

Clerk: You had a license. You don't need a new license. You need a replacement.

Martin: OK. I need a replacement.

Clerk: Fine. What's your name?

Martin: Martin Learner.

Clerk: I can't find your name. Spell ([spel] - произносить по буквам) it for me.

Martin: M-A-R-T-I-N L-E-A-R-N-E-R

Clerk: Here it is. Where do you live?

Martin: I live at fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street, Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор), Maryland ([meərilənd] - Мэриленд).

Clerk: Good. Give me your phone number?

Martin: Four-one-oh, five-five-five, six-seven-two-nine.

Clerk: Is that a new number?

Martin: No, it's an old number.

Clerk: Thank you. Just a minute, please.

Clerk: Go to window number four. You need to have a picture.

Martin: Thank you.

Clerk: You're welcome.

Photographer: Next!

Martin: I'm next.

Photographer: May I have your license?

Martin: Here it is.

Photographer: Thanks. Stand over there. That's it. Hold it. OK. That's it.

Martin: That's it?

Photographer: Wait over there. I'm going to call you.

Photographer: Martin Learner!

Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

Photographer: Here it is.

Martin: Thank you.

Photographer: Go to window five. You need to pay.

Martin: OK. Thank you.

Can you answer the following questions?

Clerk: What is your name?

You: (My name is YOUR NAME.)

Martin: Where do you live?

You: (I live at YOUR ADDRESS, YOUR CITY.)

Martin: Give me your telephone number.

You: (X-XXX-XXX-XX-XX)

Clerk: May I help you?

Martin: Can I get a new vehicle license here?

Clerk: No, you can't. Go to window eight.

Martin: Can I get a new vehicle license here?

2nd Clerk: Car or truck?

Martin: Excuse me.

2nd Clerk: Is it for a car?

Martin: Yes, it is.

2nd Clerk: What's your name?

Martin: Martin Learner.

2nd Clerk: Pardon me.

Martin: I'm going to write it for you.

2nd Clerk: OK. Oh, I see.

2nd Clerk: Is it a new car?

Martin: Yes, it is.

2nd Clerk: Do you have a second car?

Martin: No, I don't.

2nd Clerk: Did you have an old car?

Martin: Yes, I did. I sold it.

2nd Clerk: Where do you live?

Martin: Fourteen-twenty-seven, Grant Street.

2nd Clerk: In Baltimore?

Martin: Yes.

2nd Clerk: Give me your phone number, please.

Martin: Four-one-oh, five-five-five, six-seven-two-nine.

In the next part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner applies for insurance on his new car. You will learn to answer questions on an application during an interview. This lessons has many of the basic sentence patterns you have previously studied.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 26, Part 2:

Martin: Excuse me.

Clerk: May I help you?

Martin: I need insurance on my new car.

Clerk: Yes, I can help you. Just a minute, please. Now. Tell me your name please.

Martin: My name is Martin Learner.

Clerk: Do you have insurance with us?

Martin: No, I don't.

Clerk: Please give me your address.

Martin: Fourteen-twenty-seven, Grant Street, Baltimore, Maryland.

Clerk: Do you have a telephone?

Martin: Yes, I do. The number is four-one-oh, five-five-five, six-seven-two-nine.

Clerk: Are you married?

Martin: Yes.

Clerk: What is your wife's name?

Martin: Eileen Learner.

Clerk: Do you have children?

Martin: I have two children.

Clerk: Do they drive?

Martin: My son drives.

Clerk: How old is your son?

Martin: He's seventeen years old.

Clerk: What do you do?

Martin: I'm a reporter.

Clerk: Where do you work?

Martin: I work at the Voice of America.

Clerk: Where is that?

Martin: It's in Washington (['wɒʃiŋtən] - Вашингтон), D.C. (district of Columbia)

Clerk: Does your wife work?

Martin: Yes, she does.

Clerk: Does she drive?

Martin: Yes, she does.

Clerk: How many cars do you have?

Martin: I have only one car.

Clerk: Is this a new car?

Martin: Yes, it is.

Clerk: What color is it?

Martin: It's blue.

Clerk: How many doors does it have?

Martin: It has four doors.

Clerk: Do you have a license for the car?

Martin: Yes, I do.

Clerk: What is the number?

Martin: A-B-C, fifteen-forty.

Clerk: Did you have an old car?

Martin: Yes, I did.

Clerk: Did you sell it?

Martin: Yes, I did.

Clerk: You have a driver's license.

Martin: Of course.

Clerk: Have you had any accidents?

Martin: No, I haven't.

One of the most useful skills in English is the ability to ask and answer "yes" or "no" questions. Can you answer the following? The first questions are in the present time.

Martin: Am I Martin Learner?

You: (Yes, you are.)

Martin: Am I a reporter?

You: (Yes, you are.)

Martin: Are you married?

You: (Yes, I am/No, I'm not.)

Martin: Are you listening to the radio?

You: (Yes, I am/No, I'm not.)

Martin: Is your radio new?

You: (Yes, it is/No, it isn't.)

Martin: Is today Tuesday?

You: (Yes, it is/No, it isn't.)

Martin: Do you have children?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do they live with you?

You: (Yes, they do/No, they don't.)

Martin: Does your father work?

You: (Yes, he does/No, he doesn't.)

Martin: Does he have a car?

You: (Yes, he does/No, he doesn't.)

Now try some questions in the past:

Martin: Were you listening to the radio yesterday?

You: (Yes, I was/No, I wasn't.)

Martin: Were you working last year?

You: (Yes, I was/No, I wasn't.)

Martin: Was your school in town?

You: (Yes, it was/No, it wasn't.)

Martin: Was your family with you last month?

You: (Yes, it was /No, it wasn't.)

Martin: Did they travel last year?

You: (Yes, they did/No, they weren't.)

Martin: Did you see your friends last week?

You: (Yes, I did/No, I didn't.)

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

surround - окружать ([sə'raʊnd])
specific - конкретный ([spə'sifik])
leisure - досуг, свободное время (['leʒə(r)])
concert - концерт, согласие (['kɒnsə(r)t])
medical - медицинский (['medikl])
misery - страдание (['mizəri])
disease - болезнь ([di'zi:z])
miserable - несчастный (['mizərəbl])
fond - любящий, нежный ([fɒnd])
vacation - каникулы, отпуск ([və'keiʃn])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

insurance - страхование, страховка ([in'ʃʊərəns])
pattern - шаблон, модель (['pætn])
apply - применять, обращаться ([ə'plai])
clerk - клерк, служащий ([cla:k*])
licence - лицензия (['laisəns])
purchase - покупка, покупать (['pε:(r)tʃəs])
replacement - замена ([ri'pleismənt])
application - приложение, заявление ([æpli'keiʃn])
memory - память (['meməri])
replace - заменять ([ri'pleis])
memorable - памятный (['memərəbl])
habit - привычка (['hæbit])

The new verbs of this lesson are apply, purchase and replace. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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