English for All

Lesson 94: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 3)
  • Lesson 25 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

concert1 ['kɒnsət*] - концерт, согласие
disease2 [di'zi:z] - болезнь
leisure3 ['leʒə(r)] - досуг, свободное время
misery4 ['mizəri] - стадание
vacation5 [və'keiʃn] - каникулы, отпуск
surround6 [sə'raʊnd] - окружать
fond7 [fɒnd*] - любящий, нежный
medical ['medikl] - медицинский
specific8 [spə'sifik] - конкретный

1 - обратите внимание на два так непохожих друг на друга значения слова concert: "концерт" - выступление музыкантов и "согласие" (немного более формальное, чем изученное ранее agreement). Американское произношение этого слова немного другое: ['ka:nsərt].

2 - существительное disease является синонимом двух изученных ранее sickness и illness. Однако ближе все таки к sickness, которые, как правило, являются диагностированными заболеваниями. Illness же - это чаще обычное недомогание (простуда), которую мы переносим не обращаясь к доктору.

3 - leisure является тем временем, которое мы проводим вне работы (прогулка, чтение, просмотр ТВ, спорт). Хоть оно и переводится как "свободное время", но его часто можно встретить как прилагательное с существительными, и, в таком случае, оно переводится как "свободный": leisure time, hour, activity.

4 - от существительного misery образуется прилагательное miserable (['mizərəbl] ) с помощью суффикса -able, и оно близко к значению прилагательного unhappy, хотя в некоторых контекстах его можно перевести только как "страдательный".

5 - мы уже изучили много названий дней, которые являются нерабочими. Новым для нас является vacation. Это существительное значит привычный нам месячный отпуск или каникулы у студентов. Однако у англичан есть особенность. Они ассоцируют vacation с обязательной поездкой куда-либо. У них даже появилось новое слово, если вы никуда не уезжаете в отпуск, то это уже "staycation". Другими похожими словами являются: holiday - национальный праздник или выходной день, weekend - наши суббота и воскресенья, и если вы берете отгул на работе, то это day off.

6 - глагол surround образован от изученного ранее существительного round с помощью префикса sur-, и часто встречается в страдательном залоге:

The castle is surrounded by a large river. - Замок окружен большой рекой.

7 - если говорится к кому/чему испытываются нежный чувства, то после прилагательного fond используется предлог of:

I am fond of her. - Я люблю ее.

Американские носители языка произносят это прилагательное с другим гласным звуком: [fa:nd].

8 - прилагательное specific очень похоже на изученное ранее definite, и их отличие точно такое же как русских "конкретный" и "определенный".

Look at these new words in sentences:

What is your leisure on vacation?
Какой твой досуг в отпуске?
This disease made him a deeply miserable man.
Эта болезнь сделала его глубоко несчастным человеком.
I needn't a vacation. Just give me two days off.
Мне не нужен отпуск. Просто дай мне два дня отгула.
There were a lot of girls at your concert who are fond of you.
На твоем концерте было много девочек, которые любят тебя.
The enemies surrounded us.
Враги окружали нас.
Her disease requires a specific medical aid.
Ее болезнь требует конкретной медицинской помощи.
I like to spend my leisure time at rock concerts.
Мне нравится проводить мое свободное время на рок концертах.
Only medical service can reduce his misery.
Только медицинская служба может уменьшить его страдание.
I don't want me to be surrounded with any miserable people on my vacation.
Я не хочу быть окруженным несчастными людьми в моем отпуске.
Are you fond of a specific woman?
Ты любишь конкретную женщину?
The patient will give you his concert if you prove him that his disease can be treated.
Пациент даст тебе свое согласие, если ты докажешь ему, что его болезнь может быть излечима.
My leisure changes on my vacation.
Мой досуг меняется в мой отпуск.
Doctors are often surrounded by miserable people at work.
Доктора часто окружены несчастными людьми на работе.
Don't you have any specific plans on your vacation?
Разве у тебя нет конкретных планов на твой отпуск?
We've already bought all tickets for his concert.
Мы уже купили все билеты на его концерт.
Was it possible that they got this disease on the vacation?
Это возможно, что они получили эту болезнь в отпуске?

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 3)

CHAPTER FOUR

The Marquis of Evremonde

The Marquis of Evremonde was a disappointed man. He had waited for hours at the palace of the King of France, but the King had not spoken to him. Angrily, the Marquis got into his coach and told the driver to take him home. Very soon the coach was driving fast out of Paris, and the people in the narrow streets had to run to get out of the way, if they could. At the corner of a street in Saint Antoine, one of the coach wheels hit something, and the people in the street screamed loudly. The horses were frightened and stopped.

"What has gone wrong?" asked the Marquis calmly, looking out of the window of the coach. A tall man had picked something up from under the feet of the horses and was crying loudly over it.

"Why is that man making that terrible noise?" asked the Marquis impatiently.

"I'm sorry, Monsieur the Marquis. It is his child," said one of the people.

"Dead! Killed!" screamed the man.

The people in the street came close to the coach and looked at the Marquis with stony, silent faces. The Marquis looked back at them in bored dislike. To him, they were no more than animals.

"I can't understand," he said coldly, "Why you people cannot take care of yourselves and your children. I hope my horses are not hurt." And he threw a gold coin to his driver. "Give this to that man!"

"Dead!" shouted the father of the child again.

Another man came forward. "Be brave, Gaspard. Your child has died quickly, and without pain. It is better to die like that than to go on living in these terrible times."

"You are a sensible man," said the Marquis from his coach. "What is your name?"

"They call me Defarge."

"This is for you," said the Marquis, and he threw Defarge another gold coin. "Drive on," he called to his driver.

Just as the coach was leaving, a coin was thrown back in through the window. The Marquis looked angrily at the corner where Defarge had been standing. Defarge had gone.

At the corner there now stood a large, dark-haired woman, knitting. She stared long and hard at the face of the Marquis, but he did not look at her, and drove on.

Later that day, as the sun was going down, the same coach stopped in a village near the Marquis's castle. Several villagers, in poor thin clothes, with thin hungry faces, were standing in the village square. The Marquis looked at their faces and then pointed to one of them.

"Bring that man to me," he said to his driver.

The man came up to the coach, hat in hand, and the other villagers moved closer to listen.

"I passed you on the road just outside the village," said the Marquis. "You were looking at my coach in a very strange way. Why was that?"

"Monsieur, I was looking at the man," came the reply.

"What man?" asked the Marquis angrily.

"The man who was holding on under your coach," said the poor man, trembling with fear.

"What was he like?"

"Oh, Monsieur, he was white from head to foot. All covered with dust. Just like a ghost."

"Where is he now? What happened to him?"

"Oh, he ran away down the hill outside the village."

The Marquis turned to speak to another man. This was Monsieur Gabelle, the Marquis's official in the village.

"Gabelle," the Marquis said, "Watch out for this man. If he comes here, put him in prison."

When the Marquis arrived at his castle, he asked if his nephew, Monsieur Charles, had arrived from England.

"Not yet, sir," replied the servant, but as the Marquis was eating his dinner, he heard the sound of a coach outside. Soon his nephew entered the room. In England he was known as Charles Darnay.

"You've been away for a long time," said the Marquis, with his cold, polite smile.

"I've had many problems in England. Perhaps because of you," Darnay said to his uncle. "I was in great danger."

"No, no, I had nothing to do with your problems," replied the Marquis coldly.

"Unfortunately, our family no longer has the power that it once had."

"If it still had that power, one word from you would doubtless send me to prison," said Darnay.

"Possibly. For the good of our family."

"The name of our family is hated everywhere in France. We are hard, cruel landowners. Our miserable people own nothing. They work for us night and day, but they don't even have enough food for themselves and their children. If this land became mine, I would give it away, and go and live somewhere else."

"You seem to be very fond of England, although you are not a rich man there," said the Marquis. "I believe you know another Frenchman who has found a safe home there. A Doctor, I believe?"

"Yes."

"With a daughter?"

"Yes."

"Yes," said the Marquis with a secret smile on his face. "So, a new way of life begins. But you are tired. Goodnight, Charles. Sleep well. I shall see you in the morning."

After his nephew had gone to bed, the Marquis went to his room. The castle was surrounded with darkness. In the villages nearby the hungry people dreamt of a better life, with enough good food to eat, and time to rest from their work.

Early in the morning the dreamers awoke and started their day's hard work. The people in the castle did not get up until later, but when they did, why did the great bell start ringing? Why did people run out of the castle to the village as fast as they could?

The answer lay in the bed of the Marquis. He lay there, like stone, with a knife pushed into his heart. On his chest lay a piece of paper with the words: "Drive him fast to his grave. This is from JACQUES."



marquise [ma:(r)'ki:z] -
маркиз








































































































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Lesson 25 from radio station "VOA"

In this English USA lesson, Martin Learner is on a train on his way to New York ([nju: jɔ:(r)k] - Нью-Йорк) City. He talks with his seatmate about leisure activities. You will learn to answer questions about your own leisure activities.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 25, Part 1:

Female: Good afternoon. May I sit here?

Martin: Of course. Please.

Female: I am Dr. Darejan Mamoulishvili.

Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

Female: Are you going to New York, Mr. Learner?

Martin: Yes, I am. I have some work there.

Female: What do you do?

Martin: I'm a reporter.

Female: Very nice.

Martin: What do you do?

Female: I'm a doctor.

Martin: Are you a medical doctor?

Female: Yes. I'm a children's doctor.

Martin: Wonderful! Are you going to New York?

Female: Yes, I am.

Martin: Do you have work there?

Female: No, I don't. I am on vacation.

Martin: Where are you from?

Female: I am from Georgia ([dʒɔ:(r)dʒə] - Джорджия).

Martin: Are you from Atlanta ([æt'læntə] - Атланта)? You don't sound Georgian ([dʒɔ:(r)dʒən] - уроженец штата Джоржия).

Female: No. No, I am not from Georgia in America. I am from Georgia (Грузия) in Europe.

Martin: Where are you from in Georgia?

Female: I'm from Tbilisi ([tbi'li:si] - Тбилиси).

Martin: Do you work in Tbilisi?

Female: Sometimes. I worked in Moscow (['mɒskəʊ] - Москва) last month. I worked in Kiev ([kief] - Киев) last year.

Martin: Do you have friends in New York?

Female: Yes, I do. I worked in New York.

Martin: How long did you work in New York?

Female: Only one year.

Martin: When did you work in New York?

Female: Five years ago. But I visited New York too.

Martin: When did you visit New York?

Female: Ten years ago. Three years ago. And last year.

Martin: Who do you visit?

Female: I visit my doctor friends. I visit hospitals.

Martin: You have a working vacation.

Female: That's right. I was working in Atlanta.

Martin: Atlanta, Georgia? Georgia in the United States?

Female: That's right. Georgia in America.

Martin: When were you in Georgia?

Female: I was in Georgia last week. I visited the Centers for Disease Control.

Martin: Who did you visit?

Female: It was a meeting. I met with children's doctors. We talked about children's diseases.

Martin: When did you meet?

Female: We met last Thursday and Friday.

We ask questions about the past with the question word "when." The answer uses a past tense verb (глагол прошедшего времени). It frequently uses a word or words at the end of the sentence to point a specific time or period of time. We sometimes call these time expressions. You have already heard some. "five years ago", "last year, last week, last Thursday and Friday". Listen to some questions and answers again:

Martin: When did you work in New York?

Female: Five years ago. But I visited New York too.

Martin: When did you visit New York?

Female: Ten years ago.

Martin: When were you in Georgia?

Female: I was in Georgia last week.

Martin: When did you meet?

Female: We met last Thursday.

Can you answer some questions about your past activities?

Martin: When did you visit your friends?

You: (I visited my friends ...)

Martin: When did you meet your family?

You: (I met my family ...)

Martin: When did you go to work?

You: (I went to work ...)

In the second part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner talks with his seatmate on the train. She is a medical doctor visiting the United States on work and on vacation. You will learn to talk about when leisure activities take place.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 25, Part 2:

Martin: When did you come to the United States?

Female: I came last month.

Martin: What are you going to do in New York?

Female: I'm going to visit friends. And I'm going to visit hospitals.

Martin: When do you visit family?

Female: I don't have any family in America.

Martin: When do you visit family in Georgia?

Female: I visit family during my vacation.

Martin: When is your vacation?

Female: Sometimes my vacation is in the summer.

Martin: When did you visit your family?

Female: I visited my family last summer. I worked in Kiev last year. I visited my family during my vacation.

Martin: What do you like to do during your vacation?

Female: I like to swim. I like to walk in the mountains.

Martin: Do you have mountains in Georgia?

Female: Of course. We have many mountains and rivers. When do you go on vacation?

Martin: I go on vacation during the summer. Sometimes I go during the winter.

Female: What do you like to do?

Martin: I like to walk in the mountains too. My wife likes to hear music and see plays (пьесы).

Female: When does she see plays?

Martin: She went to see a play last week.

Female: Where did she see the play?

Martin: She saw the play in Baltimore. We live in Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор). She saw a play in New York too.

Female: When?

Martin: Last month.

Female: Do you like music?

Martin: Yes, I do.

Female: When do you listen to music?

Martin: I listen on the radio. I go to concerts.

Female: When do you go to concerts?

Martin: I went to a concert last month.

Female: Do you like sports?

Martin: Yes, I do. I like baseball (бейсбол). Do you like baseball?

Female: No, I don't. When do you go to baseball?

Martin: We say baseball games.

Female: You go to baseball games.

Martin: That's right.

Female: When do you go to baseball games?

Martin: In the summer.

Female: Did you go last summer?

Martin: Of course. I went with my family. I went with my friends too.

Female: Do you like reading?

Martin: Yes, I do.

Female: I like reading very much.

Martin: When do you like to read?

Female: I like to read in the winter. I read Tolstoy in Kiev.

Can you ask "when" questions about the past? Listen to Martin Learner ask the doctor a question:

Female: I studied in Moscow.

Martin: When did you study in Moscow?

Now you ask Martin the questions. Martin will speak first:

Martin: I visited California ([kæli'fɔ:(r)niə] - Калифорния).

You: (When did you visit California?)

Martin: I worked in Washington (['wɒʃiŋtən] - Вашингтон).

You: (When did you work in Washington?)

Martin: I traveled to New York.

You: (When did you travel to New York?)

Martin: I played baseball.

You: (When did you play baseball?)

Female: When did you play baseball?

Martin: Last summer. I played with my son and his friends. Do you like to travel?

Female: Yes, I do. I meet new friends. I study. I work with new children. I like to travel.

Martin: Do you like sports?

Female: Yes, I do. I like to play tennis (['tenis] - теннис).

Martin: I like to play tennis too. When do you play?

Female: I play when I travel. I played in Atlanta. I'm going to play in New York.

Martin: Would you like some coffee?

Female: No, thank you. I don't like coffee.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

servant - служащий, слуга (['sε:(r)vənt])
announce - объявить ([ə'naʊns])
frequent - частый (['fri:kwənt])
century - век (['sentʃəri])
assistance - помощь ([ə'sistəns])
innocent - невинный, чистый (['inesnt])
expression - выражение ([ik'spreʃn])
spy - шпион, шпионить ([spai])
trial - суд, испытание (['traiəl])
assistant - помощник ([ə'sistənt])
mate - помощник, товарищ ([meit])
assist - помощь, помочь ([ə'sist])
track - трек, отслеживание ([træk])
trap - ловушка ([træp])
fasten - скрепить, закреплять ([fa:sn*])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

misery - страдание (['mizəri])
fond - любящий, нежный ([fɒnd])
specific - конкретный ([spə'sifik])
leisure - досуг, свободное время (['leʒə(r)])
surround - окружать ([sə'raʊnd])
miserable - несчастный (['mizərəbl])
disease - болезнь ([di'zi:z])
vacation - каникулы, отпуск ([və'keiʃn])
medical - медицинский (['medikl])
concert - концерт, согласие (['kɒnsə(r)t])

The new verb of this lesson is surround. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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