English for All

Lesson 93: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 2)
  • Lesson 24 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

assist1 [ə'sist] - помощь, помочь
century2 ['sentʃəri] - век
expression3 [ik'spreʃn] - выражение
mate4 [meit] - помощник, товарищ
servant5 ['sε:(r)vənt] - служащий, слуга
spy6 [spai] - шпион, шпионить
track7 [træk] - трек, отслеживание, отслеживать
trap8 [træp] - ловушка
trial9 ['traiəl] - суд, испытание
announce10 [ə'naʊns] - объявить
fasten11 [fa:sn*] - скрепить, закреплять
innocent12 ['inesnt] - невинный, чистый
frequent13 ['fri:kwənt] - частый

1 - слово assist похоже на изученные ранее help и aid, но оно относится скорее к работе, бизнесу, и означает "помощь" в этом (работа или деньги). Но чаще встречается как глагол - действие существительного ("помогать" деньгами, в работе).

Our department needs some assist from the capital. - Нашему департаменту нужна помощь из столицы.
All of us assisted our new worker. - Все из нас помогали нашему новому работнику.

От assist образуется два других существительных:

  • Существительное assistance ([ə'sistəns] ),образованное с помощью суффикса -ance, которое означает то же самое, что и существительное assist, но используется в этой роли гораздо чаще.

  • Существительное assistant ([ə'sistənt] ), образованное с помощью суффикса -ant, которое означает человека, помогающего в какой-либо работе - "помощник".

Our law firm is ready to give you some assistance. - Наша юридическая фирма готова дать тебе некоторую помощь.
Our chief is looking for a new assistant at the moment. - Наш начальник ищет нового помощника в настоящий момент.

2 - century является еще одной единицей времени, равной 100 лет:

One century is one hundred years. - Один век - это 100 лет.

3 - Существительное expression образовано от изученного ранее глагола express с помощью суффикса sion, и означает "выражение" чувств, эмоций, мыслей, лица... .

Her face shows a sad expression. - Ее лицо показывает печальное выражение.

4 - mate является еще одним существительным, означающим человека, который близок к вам в физическом плане (расстояние) или моральном (отношение). Это может быть the best mate (лучший друг), roommate (сосед по комнате), classmate (одноклассник), table mate (сосед по столу), seatmate (сосед по месту) и другое.

5 - мы уже много раз встречали существительное servant, образованное от глагола serve с помощью суффикса -ant, которое означает человека, находящегося на службе у кого-либо (государства, фирмы, дворянина ...).

6 - если вы говорите за кем/чем вы шпионите, то перед объектом слежки ставится логичный предлог for:

He hired a detective to spy for his wife. - Он нанял детектива, чтобы шпионить за своей женой.

7 - существительное track в значение "след" означает то же самое, что и изученное ранее слово trail: "след", оставленный позади себя каким-либо объектом. Также он имеет значение как слово, вошедшее в русский язык - "трек" (запись музыки или трасса для гонок). После глагола track не ставится предлог for, если вы говорите за кем следите:

I am tracking her now. - Я отслеживаю ее сейчас.

8 - существительное trap означает "ловушка" в прямом смысле (устройство для поимки живого существа) и переносном смысле (негативная ситуация, в которую может попасть человек).

9 - существительное trial означает не место, в котором происходит судебное заседание, а скорее процесс, его действие, "испытание". В общем смысле это то, что нужно пройти человеку для получение желаемого:

The judge accurately explored all the evidence during the trial. - Судья тщательно исследовал все доказательства в течение суда.
Before you get this work, you will have to pass a lot of trials. - До того как ты получишь эту работу, ты должен будешь пройти много испытаний.

10 - глагол announce означает делать официальное объявление по поводу какого-либо факта:

The president announced that he would stay in his place for the next term. - Президент объявил, что он останется на своем месте в течение следующего срока.

11 - основное значение глагола fasten - это соединять, скреплять две части в одну (часто об одежде). Если говорится чем скрепляются объекты, то используется логичный предлог with:

He fastened these boards with nails. - Он скрепил эти доски гвоздями.

Часто он означает "закрепить" что либо на месте, чтобы это не двигалось:

I fastened all garden pots because of strong wind. - Я закрепил все садовые горшки из-за сильного ветра.

Американские носители языка произносят этот глагол несколько по другому: [fæsn].

12 - прилагательное innocent означает, что объект является "невиновным" в каких-то действиях или "чистым, неиспорченным" внешними отрицательными факторами (деньги, улица):

The court decided that he was innocent. - Суд решил, что он невиновен.
How do you dare to spoil this innocent child? - Как ты смеешь портить это чистое дитя?

От него образуется наречие образа действия innocently (невинно) с помощью суффикса -ly:

He innocently walks through the park. - Он невинно ходит по парку.

13 - от прилагательного frequent образуется наречие частоты frequently с помощью суффикса -ly, которое очень похоже на изученное в начальных уроках наречие often. Пока считайте их синонимами, хотя на мой взгляд с frequently действие происходит с определенными одинаковыми промежутками времени (каждый час, день ...).

I frequently visit my parents. - Я часто навещаю своих родителей.

Look at these new words in sentences:

The spy found the tracks of your escaped servant in the neighbouring country.
Шпион нашел следы твоего сбежавшего слуги в соседней стране.
Only a totally innocent person* can get away my traps.
Только полностью невиновный человек может избежать моих ловушек.
I am looking for a roommate because I don't have enough money to pay for this apartment.
Я ищу соседа по квартире, потому что у меня недостаточно денег, чтобы платить за нее.
Why does my assistant help that spy to track him?
Почему мой помощник помогает тому шпиону отследить его?
The judge announced the next trial.
Судья объявил следующее испытание.
Any good servant shouldn't show any expressions.
Любой хороший слуга не должен выказывать каких-либо выражений.
My former classmate asked for some assistance to pass the trial.
Мой бывший одноклассник попросил помощи, чтобы пройти испытание.
The spy destroyed all tracks.
Шпион разрушил все следы.
The farmer fastened animals with a string.
Фермер привязал животных веревкой.
Every frequent visitor gets one free bottle of beer in this bar.
Каждый частый посетитель получает одну бесплатною бутылку пива в этом баре.
The trial showed that the prisoner was innocent.
Судебное заседание показало, что заключенный невиновен.
The hunter frequently sets traps in the forest.
Охотник часто устанавливает ловушки в лесу.
This trial happens every century.
Это испытание случается каждый век.
The captain asked everybody to fasten his seat belt.
Капитан попросил каждого пристегнуть его ремень безопасности.
Your servant is spying for you.
Твой слуга шпионит за тобой.
A century is too long.
Век - это слишком долго.
Your assistant doesn't know how to understand the expression of your face.
Твой помощник не знает как понять выражение твоего лица.
My best mate innocently asked me to track his girlfriend.
Мой лучший друг попросил проследить за его девушкой.

* - Обратите внимание на место положения артикля с существительным person (перед наречием). Такое встречается, если наречие (особенно наречие степени) относится к существительному:

He is a very tired man. - Он является очень уставшим человеком.

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 2)

CHAPTER THREE

A trial in London - 1780

Tellson's Bank in the City of London was an old, dark, and ugly building. It smelt of dust and old papers, and the people who worked there all seemed old and dusty, too. Outside the building sat Jerry Cruncher, who carried messages for people in the bank.

One morning in March 1780, Jerry had to go to the Old Bailey to collect an important message from Mr Lorry. Trials at the Old Bailey were usually for very dangerous criminals, and the prisoner that morning was a young man of about twenty-five, well dressed and quite calm.

"What's he done?" Jerry asked the doorman quietly.

"He's a spy! A French spy!" the doorman told him. "He travels from England to France and tells the French King secret information about our English army."

"What'll happen if he's guilty?" asked Jerry.

"Oh, he'll have to die, no question of that," replied the doorman enthusiastically. "They'll hang him."

"What's his name?"

"Darnay, Charles Darnay. Not an English name, is it?"

While Jerry waited, he looked around at the crowd inside the Old Bailey and noticed a young lady of about twenty years, and her father, a gentleman with very white hair. The young lady seemed very sad when she looked at the prisoner, and held herself close to her father.

Then the trial began, and the first person who spoke against Charles Darnay was called John Barsad.

He was an honest man, he said, and proud to be an Englishman. Yes, he was, or had been, a friend of the prisoner's. And in the prisoner's pockets he had seen important plans and lists about the English armies. No, of course he had not put the lists there himself. And no, he was not a spy himself, he was not someone paid to make traps for innocent people.

Next the young lady spoke. She said that she had met the prisoner on the boat which had carried her and her father from France to England. "He was very good and kind to my father and to me," she said.

"Was he travelling alone on the ship?"

"No, he was with two French gentlemen."

"Now, Miss Manette, did you see him show them any papers, or anything that looked like a list?"

"No, I didn't see anything like that."

Questions, questions, questions! The trial went on, and finally, a small, red-haired man spoke. He told the judge that he had seen Mr Darnay at a hotel in a town where there were many soldiers and ships. Then one of the lawyers, a man called Sydney Carton, wrote some words on a piece of paper, and gave it to Mr Stryver, the lawyer who was speaking for Mr Darnay.

"Are you quite sure that the prisoner is the man you saw?" Mr Stryver asked the red-haired man.

"Quite sure," said the man.

"Have you ever seen anyone like the prisoner?" asked Mr Stryver.

"I'd always be able to recognize him." The red-haired man was very confident.

"Then I must ask you to look at the gentleman over there," said Mr Stryver, pointing to Sydney Carton. "Don't you think that he is very like the prisoner?"

Everyone in the court could see that Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay were indeed very similar.

"Well then," said Mr Stryver, "It is so easy to find a man like the prisoner that we can even find one in this room. So how can you be so sure that it was the prisoner you saw in that hotel?" And the red-haired man said not another word.

The lawyers talked and argued, and when at last the trial came to an end, Jerry Cruncher had fallen asleep.

But Mr Lorry woke him up and gave him a piece of paper. "NOT GUILTY" were the words written on it, and Jerry hurried back to Tellson's Bank with the message.

Sydney Carton seemed to be a man who did not care about anyone or anything. He was Mr Stryver's assistant. In fact, he did most of the real work for Mr Stryver. Stryver was good at speaking at a trial, but he was not good at discovering important facts and details, especially when these details were hidden in a lot of papers. Every night Carton studied the many papers that lawyers have to read, and he wrote down the questions which Stryver should ask at the next day'st rial. And every day Stryver asked these questions, and people thought how clever he was.

Outside the Old Bailey Mr Darnay, now a free man, met his friends: Dr Manette and his daughter Lucie, Mr Jarvis Lorry, Mr Stryver, and Mr Carton.

Dr Manette no longer looked like the man in the room above Defarge's wine-shop five years ago. His hair was white, but his eyes were bright and he stood straight and strong. Sometimes his face became dark and sad when he remembered the years in the Bastille prison; at these times only his daughter Lucie, whom he loved so much, could help him.

As they stood there talking, a strange expression came over Dr Manette's face. He was staring at Charles Darnay, but he did not seem to see him. For a few moments there was dislike, even fear in his eyes.

"My father," said Lucie softly, putting her hand on his arm, "Shall we go home now?"

"Yes," he answered slowly.

Soon they drove off in a coach, and then Mr Stryver and Mr Lorry walked away, leaving Mr Darnay and Mr Carton alone.

"It must be strange for you," said Carton, "To be a free man again, and to be standing here, talking to a man who looks just like you. Let us go out and eat together."

After they had eaten, Carton said softly, "How sad and worried Miss Manette was for you today! She's a very beautiful young woman, don't you think?"

Darnay did not reply to what Carton had said, but he thanked him for his help at the trial.

"I don't want your thanks," replied Carton. "I have done nothing. And I don't think I like you."

"Well," said Darnay, "You have no reason to like me. But I hope that you will allow me to pay the bill for both of us."

"Of course. And as you are paying for me, I'll have another bottle of wine."

After Darnay had left, Carton drank some more wine and looked at himself in the mirror. He was angry because Darnay looked so much like him, but was so different. Carton knew that he was a clever lawyer, and that he was a good and honest man, but he had never been successful for himself. He drank too much, and his life was unhappy and friendless. His cleverness and his hard work in the law only made others, like Mr Stryvet, successful and rich. He remembered Lucie Manette's worried face when she watched Darnay in court.

"If I changed places with Darnay," he whispered to himself, "Would those blue eyes of Miss Manette look at me, in the same way? No, no, it's too late now."

He drank another bottle of wine and fell asleep.

In a quiet street not far away was the house where Dr Manette and Lucie lived. They had one servant, Miss Pross, who had taken care of Lucie since she was a child. Miss Pross had red hair and a quick, sharp voice, and seemed at first sight a very alarming person. But everybody knew that she was in fact a warm-hearted and unselfish friend, who would do anything to guard her darling Lucie from trouble or danger.

Dr Manette was now well enough to work as a doctor, and he, Lucie, and Miss Pross led a quiet, comfortable life. Mr Lorry, who had become a close family friend, came regularly to the house, and in the months after the trial, Mr Darnay and Mr Carton were also frequent visitors. This did not please Miss Pross at all, who always looked very cross when they came.

"Nobody is good enough for my darling Lucie," she told Mr Lorry one day, "And I don't like all these hundreds of visitors."

Mr Lorry had a very high opinion of Miss Pross, but he wasn't brave enough to argue that two visitors were not "hundreds". Nobody argued with Miss Pross if they could avoid it.














doorman - дворецкий




enthusiastically [inθju:ziæstikli] -
с энтузиазмом










































































































darling ['da:(r)linŋ] -
дорогая







avoid [ə'vɔid]
- избегать
_______________________________________________

Lesson 24 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner is on an airplane. He talks with his seatmate who is very nervous. You will learn to ask how another person travels.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 24, Part 1:

Attend: Please fasten your seat belt. May I take those for you?

Martin: Yes, please. Thanks.

Attend: You're welcome.

Martin: Good morning. I'm Martin Learner.

Karl: Good morning. I'm Karl Musholt.

Martin: Where are you going?

Karl: I'm going to San Antonio ([sæn æn'təʊniəʊ] - Сан Антонио). Where are you going?

Martin: I'm going to Dallas (['dæləs] - Даллас).

Karl: Do you live in Dallas?

Martin: No, I live in Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор). I'm going to write a story.

Karl: About Dallas?

Martin: No, I'm going to write a story about football.

Karl: Ah, the Dallas Cowboys (['kaʊbɔi] - ковбой).

Martin: That's right.

Karl: Do you like airplanes?

Martin: Umm. They're OK.

Karl: I don't like airplanes. They make me nervous. Do they make you nervous?

Martin: No, they don't.

Karl: Do you fly very often?

Martin: Yes, I do. I travel very often.

Karl: What do you do?

Martin: I'm a reporter. What do you do?

Karl: I'm a coach.

Martin: Are you OK?

Karl: Yes. I'm OK.

Martin: That wasn't too bad.

Attend: Would you like something to drink?

Karl: Yes, please.

Attend: What would you like?

Karl: Coffee.

Martin: Coffee, please. What do you coach?

Karl: I coach track. I coach runners.

Martin: Where are you from?

Karl: I'm from Germany. But I live in Colorado ([kɒlə'ra:dəʊ] - Колорадо) now.

Martin: Do you coach at a university?

Karl: No, I don't. I have a camp for runners.

Martin: Do you travel very often?

Karl: Yes. I do.

Martin: Do you like to travel?

Karl: Yes, I do. I don't like to fly.

Martin: Where do you like to travel?

Karl: I like to visit family.

Martin: How do you travel?

Karl: I travel by car very often. My family lives in the West.

Martin: Do you like to drive?

Karl: Yes. My children like to drive too. They often drive. Do you like to travel?

Martin: I have to travel.

Karl: I have to travel too.

Martin: I like to travel in the country. I live in the city. My home is in Baltimore.

Karl: My home is in the country. My camp is in the country. How do you travel?

Martin: I travel by train very often.

We begin questions with "how" to ask about the means of travel. Listen to some sentences again:

Martin: How do you travel?

Karl: I travel by car very often. How do you travel?

Martin: I travel by train very often.

Can you ask the questions about travel? Begin with "how."

You: (How do you travel?)

Karl: I travel by car.

You: (How do you travel?)

Martin: I travel by train.

You: (How do you travel?)

Martin: I travel by plane too.

Attend: What are you going to eat?

Karl: Nothing.

Attend: Would you like more coffee?

Karl: Yes, please.

Attend: What are you going to eat?

Martin: Nothing, thank you.

Attend: Would you like more coffee?

Martin: No, thank you. Do you like coaching?

Karl: Yes, I do.

Martin: Were you a runner?

Karl: Yes, I was. I ran in school. I was in the Olympics ([ə'limpiks] - Олимпийские игры).

Martin: That's interesting.

In the second part of this English USA lesson, Martin Learner talks with his seatmate on an airplane. They talk about traveling. You will learn to ask and answer questions about traveling.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 24, Part 2:

Martin: Where does your family like to travel?

Karl: My wife likes cities. She likes New York ([nju: jɔ:(r)k] - Нью-Йорк) and Washington (['wɒʃiŋtən] - Вашингтон), D.C. (district of Columbia) My children like the country. They like rivers and mountains.

Martin: You have rivers and mountains in Colorado.

Karl: Oh, yes. But my children like the rivers and mountains in Idaho (['aidəhəʊ] - Айдахо).

Martin: My family lives in the East. They like to travel in the West.

Karl: Does your family like to travel by plane?

Martin: Yes, they do. They don't travel very often.

Karl: Do they like to travel by train?

Martin: Yes, they do. They like to travel by car too.

Karl: Do you travel by bus?

Martin: No, I don't. I live in Baltimore. I work in Washington, D.C. The train is very good there.

Karl: We don't have a train.

Martin: Do you have a bus?

Karl: No, we don't. We travel by car. My daughter likes to travel by horse.

Martin: That's very nice in the country.

Karl: It's very slow.

Martin: My daughter likes animals.

Karl: Does she like horses?

Martin: Yes, she does. We don't have a horse.

Karl: We have four horses.

Karl: Where does your wife like to travel?

Martin: She likes to visit her family.

Karl: Where does her family live?

Martin: Her mother lives in Indianapolis ([indiə'na:pəlis] - Индианаполис). Her father lives in Florida (['flɒridə] - Флорида).

Karl: Does she have aunts and uncles?

Martin: Yes.

Karl: Where do they live?

Martin: New York, Boston (['bɒstən] - Бостон) and Los Angeles ([lɒs 'ændʒələs] - Лос-Анджелес).

Karl: Do you visit them?

Martin: Yes, we do. My wife likes to visit family.

Karl: How do you travel to Los Angeles?

Martin: We travel by plane.

Karl: How do you travel to New York?

Martin: We take the train. It's very fast.

Karl: That's nice. How do you travel to Indianapolis?

Martin: We travel by car. We like to have the car with us.

Can you answer questions about the means of travel from one place to another. Listen to some sentences:

Karl: How do you travel to Indianapolis?

Martin: We travel by car.

Karl: How do you travel to work?

Martin: I travel by train.

Karl: How do you travel to Los Angeles?

Martin: We travel by airplane.

Please answer the following questions:

Martin: How do you travel to work?

You: (I travel by car/bus/train...)

Martin: How do you travel to sports?

You: (I travel by car/bus/train...)

Martin: How do you travel to shop?

You: (I travel by car/bus/train...)

Martin: How do you travel to your house?

You: (I travel by car/bus/train...)

Attend: May I get you something?

Karl: May I have more coffee, please?

Attend: Of course. May I get you something?

Martin: No, thank you.

Karl: I'm going to San Antonio for a track meet.

Martin: Do you have runners in the track meet?

Karl: Yes, I do.

Martin: How many runners do you have in the meet?

Karl: Only three. They run very well.

Martin: How do they travel?

Karl: They travel by plane.

Martin: Are they here?

Karl: No, they aren't. They're going to travel on Tuesday. You're going to write about football players. Do you write about runners?

Martin: I can write about runners. I write about sports often. I'm going to write about swimming.

Karl: I'm going to travel to the East.

Martin: Where are you going?

Karl: First, I'm going to New Jersey ([nju: 'dʒε:(r)zi] - Нью-Джерси).

Martin: Come to Baltimore.

Karl: Thanks.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

noble - благородный ([nəʊbl])
passenger - пассажир (['pæsindʒə(r)])
charge - заряд, обвинение, заряжать, обвинять ([tʃa:(r)dʒ])
knit - вязать ([nit])
desperate - отчаянный (['despərət])
alarm - тревога, тревожить ([ə'la:(r)m])
nobleman - дворянин (['nəʊblmən])
afterwards - позже, впоследствии (['a:ftə(r)wə(r)dz])
obey - повиноваться, подчиняться ([ə'bei])
tower - башня ([taʊə(r)])
tremble - дрожать, страшиться ([trembl])
harbour - гавань, убежище (['ha:(r)bə(r)])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

assistant - помощник ([ə'sistənt])
mate - помощник, товарищ ([meit])
track - трек, отслеживание ([træk])
announce - объявить ([ə'naʊns])
frequent - частый (['fri:kwənt])
assistance - помощь ([ə'sistəns])
expression - выражение ([ik'spreʃn])
spy - шпион, шпионить ([spai])
trial - суд, испытание (['traiəl])
innocent - невинный, чистый (['inesnt])
assist - помощь, помочь ([ə'sist])
century - век (['sentʃəri])
trap - ловушка ([træp])
fasten - скрепить, закреплять ([fa:sn*])
servant - служащий, слуга (['sε:(r)vənt])

The new verbs of this lesson are assist, announce, fasten, track and spy. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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