afterwards9 ['a:ftə(r)wə(r)dz] - позже, впоследствии
1 - существительное alarm наиболее часто означает "тревога" - сигнал об опасности. Если вы используете английский язык в настройках на своих девайсах, то вы встретите выражение alarm clock - будильник.
Глагол alarm имеет значение "заставлять кого-либо чувствовать тревогу". И в страдательном (пассивном) залоге, он часто значит "быть поставленным на охранную сигнализацию".
We were alarmed by some loud outside sounds. - Мы были встревожены какими-то внешними громкими звуками.
All doors are alarmed at night. - Все двери поставлены на охранную сигнализацию ночью.
2 - charge сложное для нас слово, так как имеет много не похожих друг на друга значений. Как существительное, его основные значение следующие:
"Цена, плата", запрашиваемая за услугу:
The charge for washing of such cars is 5 dollars. - Плата за мытье таких машин - 5 долларов.
"Обвинение" в суде:
He is on a charge of stealing. - Он под обвинением в воровстве.
"Ответственность" за что-то:
He is in my charge this week. - Он под моей ответственностью на этой неделе.
"Зарядка" - накопленная энергия прибора:
The charge of my phone is low. - Зарядка моего телефона низкая.
Как глагол он означает действие существительного:
Требовать плату за услугу:
The waiter charged me 5 dollars for the broken plate. - Официант попросил с меня 5 долларов за разбитую тарелку.
Обвинять в чем-либо (особенно в юридическом смысле):
This man was charged with a murder. - Этот человек был обвинен в убийстве.
Поручать кого-либо в ответственность:
The uncle was charged to protect our children. - Дядя был оставлен в ответственность защищать наших детей.
"Заряжать" - накапливать энергию:
I have to charge my phone. - Я должен зарядить мой телефон.
3 - наиболее распространенным значением существительного harbour является "гавань", то есть побережье для кораблей, в котором они в безопасности от большой воды. Но как и в русском языке, в английском языке это слово имеет значение "убежище" - безопасное место:
This is a harbour for any poor children. - Это прибежище для любых бедных детей.
И так же, как и в случаях с многими другими словами, американские носители языка изменили суффикс -our: harbor.
4 - глагол knit, в современном английском, встречается как в правильной форме (knitted и knitted), так и с неправильными формами (knit и knit). Но я бы использовал правильные формы для большего удобства. И помните, что начальная буква k перед согласной почти никогда не произносится: knife, knock, know.
I bought a knitted (knit) scarf. - Я купил вязанный шарф.
5 - после глагола obey не нужно ставить предлога to перед следующим за ним прямым дополнением (кому/чему подчиняется субъект), как и в многих других случаях, когда прямое дополнение стоит сразу после глагола:
I obey only my king. - Я подчиняюсь только моему королю.
6 - с глаголом tremble можно спутать два изученных ранее: shake и shiver. Shake используется, когда что-то трясется под действием какой-то внешней силы. Shiver является синонимом tremble, но более распространен, когда дрожь происходит под действием холода, когда как с tremble ты дрожишь от любых чувств: холод, страх, возбуждение.
I would shake this bottle before its opening. - Я бы встряхнул эту бутылку перед тем как открыть ее.
I shivered even under two blankets. - Я дрожал даже под двумя одеялами.
I trembled with fear. - Я дрожал от страха.
7 - от прилагательного desperate образуется наречие образа действия desperately с помощью суффикса -ly:
He desperately wants to drink. - Он отчаянно хочет пить.
8 - прилагательное noble означает "благородный" как в значение сословия, так и в обозначение поведения человека. От него образуется существительное: nobleman (['nəʊblmən] - дворянин , аристократ
9 - Наречие afterwards относится к наречиям времени, то есть обычно ставится в начало или конец предложения, и означает, что действие произойдет позже в будущем. Наиболее близким к нему является изученное ранее наречие later, но с afterwards действие обычно происходит в ближайшем будущем:
It happened afterwards. - Это случилось впоследствии.
Вам встретится форма наречия afterward (['a:ftə(r)wə(r)d]
), которая значит то же самое, но используется носителями языка USA и Canada.
Look at these new words in sentences:
The nobleman ordered to build a new tower for prisoners in his castle.
Дворянин велел построить новую башню в его замке для заключенных.
This is your charge for the safe harbour.
Это твоя плата за безопасное убежище.
The passengerknitted during all her trip.
Пассажирка вязала в течение всей ее поездки.
A boy couldn't control his trembling body when he saw her.
Мальчик не мог контролировать свое трясущееся тело, когда он видел ее.
The noblemanobeyed him afterwards.
Дворянин подчинился ему впоследствии.
He can't be charged for the desperate actions of the passenger.
Он не может быть в ответе за отчаянные действия пассажира.
Why is this harbour so full today?
Почему эта гавань так заполнена сегодня?
Passengers heard alarm from the close ship.
Пассажиры слышали тревогу с близкого корабля.
My friends and I trembled with excitement when we met that noblewoman.
Я и мои друзья дрожали от возбуждения, когда мы встретили ту аристократку.
His noble decision let us not to raise the alarm.
Его благородное решение позволило нам не поднимать тревогу.
Passengers complained that they can't charge their devices.
Пассажиры жаловались, что они не могут зарядить их устройства.
The voice of the secretary desperatelytrembled with fear afterwards.
Голос секретарши отчаянно дрожал от страха позже.
Our neighbour left us in charge for his flat which was alarmed.
Наш сосед оставил нам под ответственность его квартиру, которая была поставлена на охранную сигнализацию.
He has to obeypassengers.
Он обязан подчиняться пассажирам.
The captain waits for the opening of the harbour.
Капитан ждет открытия гавани.
It's usual charge for a false fire alarm.
Это обычная плата за ложную пожарную тревогу.
She likes to knit at any free moment.
Она любит вязать в любой свободный момент.
It is the highest tower in the city.
Это - самая высокая башня в городе.
Now, you begin to read a new text which more difficult than previous one, but it is the last text of this course, and you should be ready for it.
Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 1)
The road to Paris - 1775
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. It was the season of light, it was the season of darkness. It was the spring of hope, it was the winter of sadness. It was the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five.
In France there was a King and a Queen, and in England there was a King and a Queen. They believed that nothing would ever change. But in France things were bad, and getting worse. The people were poor, hungry and unhappy. The King made paper money and spent it, and the people had nothing to eat. Behind closed doors in the homes of the people, voices spoke in whispers against the King and his noblemen; they were only whispers, but they were the angry whispers of desperate people.
Late one November night, in that same year 1775, a coach going from London to Dover stopped at the top of a long hill.The horses were tired, but as they rested, the driver heard another horse coming fast up the hill behind them. The rider stopped his horse beside the coach and shouted: "I want a passenger, Mr Jarvis Lorry, from Tellson's Bank in London."
"I am Mr Jarvis Lorry," said one of the passengers, putting his head out of the window. "What do you want?"
"It's me! Jerry, Jerry Cruncher, from Tellson's Bank, sir" cried the man on the horse.
"What's the matter, Jerry?" called Mr Lorry.
"A message for you, Mr Lorry. You've got to wait at Dover for a young lady."
"Very well, Jerry," said Mr Lorry. "Tell them my answer is - CAME BACK TO LIFE."
It was a strange message, and a stranger answer. No one in the coach understood what they meant.
The next day Mr Lorry was sitting in his hotel in Dover when a young lady arrived. She was pretty, with golden hair and blue eyes, and Mr Lorry remembered a small child, almost a baby. He had carried her in his arms when he came from Calais to Dover , from France to England, many years ago. Mr Lorry asked the young lady to sit down.
"Miss Manette," he said. "I have a strange story to tell you, about one of the customers of Tellson's Bank. That's where I work."
"Yes, but I don't quite understand, Mr Lorry," said the young lady. "I received a message from Tellson's Bank, asking me to come here to meet you. I understood there was some news about my poor father's money. He died so long ago - before I was born. What is this story you want to tell me?"
"About twenty years ago, Miss Manette, a French doctor married an English lady. They had a daughter, but just before she was born, her father disappeared. Nobody knew what had happened to him. Not long afterwards his unhappy wife died, and their daughter was brought back to England."
"But this is like my father's story, Mr Lorry. And wasn't it you who brought me back to England?"
"Yes, that's true, Miss Manette. Many years ago I brought you from France to England, and Tellson's Bank has taken care of you since then. You were told that your father had died. But think, Miss Manette. Perhaps your father wasn't dead. Perhaps he was in prison. Not because he had done something wrong! But just because he had a powerful enemy - an enemy with the power to send him to prison and to keep him there, hidden and forgotten, for eighteen years!"
"Can it be true? Is it possible that my father is still alive?" Lucie Manette stared at Mr Lorry. Her face was white and her hands trembled. "It will be his ghost - not him!"
"No, Miss Manette," said Mr Lorry gently. "He is alive, but he has changed very much. Even his name had been forgotten! And we must ask no questions about the past, no questions at all. It would be too dangerous. He has been taken to the house of an old servant in Paris, and we are going there to bring him back to life."
A wine-shop in Paris
In the part of Paris called Saint Antoine everyone was poor. The streets were narrow and dirty, the food-shops were almost empty. The faces of the children looked old already, because they were so hungry. In the wine-shop of Monsieur Defarge there were not many customers and Defarge was outside, talking to a man in the street. His wife, Madame Defarge, sat inside the shop, knitting and watching. Defarge came in and his wife looked at him, then turned her eyes to look at two new customers, a man of about sixty and a young lady. Defarge went over to speak to them, suddenly kissed the young lady's hand, and led them out of the back of the shop. They followed him upstairs, many stairs, until they reached the top. Defarge took a key out of his pocket.
"Why is the door locked?" asked Mr Lorry in surprise. "He is a free man now."
"Because he has lived too long behind a locked door," replied Defarge angrily. "He is afraid if the door is not locked! That is one of the things they have done to him."
"I'm afraid, too," whispered Miss Manette. Her blue eyes looked worriedly at Mr Lorry. "I am afraid of him - of my father."
Defarge made a lot of noise as he opened the door. Mr Lorry and Lucie went into the room behind him. A thin, white-haired man was sitting on a wooden seat. He was very busy, making shoes.
"Good day," said Defarge. "You are still working hard, I see."
After a while they heard a whisper.
"Yes, I am still working."
"Come," said Defarge. "You have a visitor. Tell him your name."
"My name?" came the whisper. "One Hundred and Five, North Tower."
Mr Lorry moved closer to the old man.
"Dr Manette, don't you remember me, Jarvis Lorry?" he asked gently.
The old prisoner looked up at Mr Lorry, but there was no surprise, no understanding in his tired face, and he went back to work making shoes. Slowly Lucie came near to the old man. After a while he noticed her.
"Who are you?" he asked.
Lucie put her arms around the old man and held him, tears of happiness and sadness running down her face. From a little bag the old man took some golden hair. He looked at it, and then he looked at Lucie's hair.
"It is the same. How can it be?" He stared into Lucie's face. "No, no, you are too young, too young."
Through her tears Lucie tried to explain that she was the daughter he had never seen. The old man still did not understand, but he seemed to like the sound of Lucie's voice and the touch of her warm young hand on his.
Then Lucie said to Mr Lorry, "I think we should leave Paris at once. Can you arrange it?"
"Yes, of course," said Mr Lorry. "But do you think he is able to travel?"
"He will be better far away from this city where he has lost so much of his life," said Lucie.
"You are right," said Defarge. "And there are many other reasons why Dr Manette should leave France now."
While Mr Lorry and Defarge went to arrange for a coach to take them out of Paris, Lucie sat with her father. Exhausted by the meeting, he fell asleep on the floor, and his daughter watched him quietly and patiently until it was time to go.
When Mr Lorry returned, he and Defarge brought food and clothes for Dr Manette. The Doctor did everything they told him to do; he had been used to obeying orders for so many years. As he came down the stairs, Mr Lorry heard him say again and again, "One Hundred and Five, North Tower."
When they went to the coach, only one person saw them go: Madame Defarge. She stood in the doorway, and knitted and watched, seeing everything... and seeing nothing.
Paris ['pæris] - Париж
Dover [dəʊvə(r)] - Дувр
Calais [kæ'lei] - Кале
servant [sε:(r)vənt] - служащий, слуга
exhaust [ig'zɔ:st] - истощать
Lesson 23 from radio station "VOA"
In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner talks with some of his colleagues ([kɒ'li:g or ka:'lig] - коллега) in his office about sports. They discuss activities taking place in the future. You will learn to ask someone what they are going to do in the future.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 23, Part 1:
Howard: Excuse me, Martin.
Martin: Good morning, Howard. Good morning, Waleed.
Howard: Can we talk to you?
Martin: Sure. Come in.
Waleed: We're going to watch baseball (бейсбол) tonight. Can you go with us?
Martin: Not tonight. I'm going to take the children to their grandparents.
Howard: Aren't they in Chicago ([ʃika:gəʊ] - Чикаго)?
Martin: My parents are in Chicago. My wife's parents are in Ocean City. We're going to Ocean City.
Waleed: Are the children going to stay in Ocean City?
Martin: Yes. They're going to stay for five days.
Howard: That's nice.
Waleed: Does your son like that?
Martin: Oh, yes. His friends are there.
Waleed: My son doesn't like visiting his grandparents. They live in the country.
Martin: His friends are here.
Waleed: That's right.
Howard: Doesn't he like his family?
Waleed: Yes, he likes them. He likes his friends too.
Howard: You can't go with us tonight.
Waleed: Can you go on Thursday?
Waleed: OK. Let's go on Thursday.
Martin: Are you going to watch tonight?
Howard: Sure. And we're going to watch on Thursday.
Waleed: See you later.
Cara: Hello, Martin. May I come in?
Martin: Of course.
Cara: Do you, your wife like swimming?
Cara: Do you like to watch swimming?
Martin: On television?
Cara: No. My daughter is going to swim in Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор) on Saturday. Can you come to watch?
Martin: Is it a swim meet?
Cara: Yes, it is. She's going to swim tonight too.
Martin: Sit down. Please. I'm going to phone my wife.
Martin: Hello, Eileen. What are we going to do on Saturday? Cara's daughter is going to swim in Baltimore on Saturday. Cara, in the afternoon?
Cara: Yes, she's going to swim in the afternoon.
Martin: She's going to swim in the afternoon. It's a swim meet. OK. Goodbye.
Martin: We can come on Saturday.
Cara: Can your daughter come?
Martin: No, she's visiting her grandparents in Ocean City. Can you come to our house after the meet?
Cara: No, thank you. We have to come home. She has a meet here on Sunday.
Cara: Thank you.
Martin: See you on Saturday.
Waleed: Martin, Howard and I are going to eat. Can you come?
Martin: Yes. I'm going to finish this story later.
We ask about activities in the future in the following way. Listen to these questions and answers:
Martin: What are you going to do?
Howard: We're going to watch baseball tonight.
Waleed: What are the children going to do?
Martin: They're going to stay in Ocean City. What is she going to do?
Cara: She's going to swim tonight.
Martin: What are you going to do?
Waleed: We're going to eat.
Ask Martin Learner what he is going to do. He will give three different answers.
You: (What are you going to do?)
Martin: We're going to watch the swim meet.
You: (What are you going to do?)
Martin: We're going to watch baseball.
You: (What are you going to do?)
Martin: I'm going to take the children to their grandparents.
Howard: What are you going to eat?
Waleed: I'm going to have a sandwich (['sændwidʒ or 'sændwitʃ] - бутерброд).
Howard: Martin, what are you going to have?
Martin: I'm going to have a bowl of soup.
Howard: What are you going to drink?
Waleed: I'm going to have coffee.
Martin: I'm going to have coffee too.
In the the second part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner continues to talk with his office colleagues about sports activities in the future. You will learn to answer questions about your future activities.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 23, Part 2:
Howard: Let's sit here.
Waleed: Are you going to play softball (софтбол) on Friday night?
Howard: No, I'm going to play on Saturday morning. My son is going to play on Friday night. What are you going to do on Friday night?
Waleed: I'm going to a movie.
Martin: Do you like movies?
Waleed: Yes, I like movies.
Howard: Did you go to a movie last night?
Waleed: Yes, I did.
Howard: My son and I went on Saturday.
Waleed: Did you like it?
Howard: He liked it. I didn't like it.
Martin: Where is your family, Waleed?
Waleed: They're in Lebanon (['lebənən] - Ливан).
Martin: What are they doing there?
Waleed: My wife's family lives there. Her mother and father live there.
Martin: Does she have brothers and sisters?
Waleed: She has two brothers. They live in the United States.
Howard: Did your children go with her?
Waleed: Yes, they went too. They're going to come home next month. What are you going to do on Saturday, Martin?
Martin: I'm going to a swim meet. Cara's daughter is going to swim in Baltimore. My wife and I are going to watch. Do you like music, Waleed?
Waleed: Oh, yes. I like jazz ([dʒæz] - джаз).
Martin: What are you going to do next Sunday?
Martin: Can you come to Baltimore? We're going to have jazz at the harbor.
Waleed: OK. In the afternoon?
Martin: Can you come, Howard?
Howard: No, I can't. We're going to visit family.
Waleed: Where are you going?
Howard: We're going to visit my sister.
Waleed: Did you go last week?
Howard: No, we didn't.
Martin: Excuse me. I'm going to work.
Waleed: See you later.
Lee: Excuse me, Martin. May I come in.
Martin: Yes. Please. Sit down.
Lee: Listen. I have a problem.
Martin: Tell me.
Lee: My wife is singing in Dallas (['dæləs] - Даллас) this week. I'm going to Miami ([mei'æmi] - Майями) on Saturday. Can my son come to stay with your son Saturday and Sunday?
Martin: My son is visiting his grandparents. Does your son like swim meets?
Lee: He likes swimming.
Martin: My wife and I are going to a swim meet on Saturday. Does he like jazz?
Lee: He plays jazz in high school.
Martin: We're going to hear some jazz on Sunday.
Martin: At the harbor. Waleed is going to come with us.
We answer questions about future activities with the verb "be" plus "going to" plus an activity verb. For example "I am going to play." Listen to some sentences about future activities:
Howard: I'm going to play on Saturday.
Martin: Cara's daughter is going to swim in Baltimore. My wife and I are going to watch.
Waleed: They're going to come home next month.
Martin: I'm going to work.
Can you answer questions about your own activities in the future?
Martin: What are you going to do on Saturday?
You: (I am goint to ...)
Martin: What are you going to do on Sunday?
You: (I am goint to ...)
Martin: What are you going to do on Friday?
You: (I am goint to ...)
Martin: Lee, your son can come with us.
Lee: Does Waleed like children?
Martin: He has two children.
Remember the words of the previous lesson:
property - собственность (['prɒpə(r)ti])
connect - связывать, соединять ([kə'nekt])
activity - деятельность, активность ([æk'tivəti])
speech - речь ([spi:tʃ])
connection - связь, соединение ([kə'nekʃn])
solve - решать ([sɒlv])
theory - теория (['θiəri])
regular - регулярный (['regjələ(r)])
achieve - достигать ([ə'tʃi:v])
victim - жертва (['viktim])
achievement - достижение ([ə'tʃi:vmənt])
Repeat the words of this lesson:
tower - башня ([taʊə(r)])
knit - вязать ([nit])
tremble - дрожать, страшиться ([trembl])
afterwards - позже, впоследствии (['a:ftə(r)wə(r)dz])