English for All

Lesson 89: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: About a boy (chapter 9)
  • Lesson 20 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

depression1 [di'preʃən] - дипрессия
detail ['di:teil] - деталь
hire2 [haiə(r)] - прокат, наем, нанимать
model ['mɒdl] - модель
pipe3 [paip] - труба
scheme4 [ski:m] - схема
toast5 [təʊst] - тост
tube3 [tju:b] - труба
distinguish6 [dis'tiŋgwiʃ] - различать
reduce7 [ri'dju:s] - уменьшить

1 - существительное depression образуется от изученного ранее глагола depress с помощью суффикса -sion. Кроме логичного значения "дипрессия", этот термин также используется в экономике как "рецессия, спад".

2 - существительное hire означает "аренда" чего-либо или "наем" кого-либо. Глагол означает действие существительного - "арендовать" или "нанимать":

The hire of cars helps tourists to travel in new countries. - Аренда машин помогает туристам путешествовать в новых странах.
He prefers to hire workers to the members of his family. - Он предпочитает наемных рабочих членам своей семьи.

3 - существительные pipe и tube легко путают даже носители языка в значение труба.

Pipe - это "труба" для переноса жидкости, газа, материала (водопроводная, газовая, канализационная); курительная "трубка"; музыкальный инструмент. Tube - это почти всегда вытянутая конструкция, полая внутри (круглая, квадратная, прямоугольная), как правило используемая как каркас другой конструкции. Pipe, обычно, имеет стандартные размеры (внутренний диаметр), tube измеряется по внешней стороне стенки.

I bought new pipes for our bathroom. - Я купил новые трубы для нашей ванны.
I can't start building the fence without tubes. - Я не могу начать строить забор без труб.

4 - существительное scheme похоже на изученное ранее plan - последовательная система действий для получения эффекта. Но не путайте это слово с одним из русских значений слова "схема" - чертеж построек или электрическая схема. В английском языке за это значение отвечает другое слово.

The police discovered our scheme. - Полиция раскрыла нашу схему.

5 - существительное toast, как и в русском языке, имеет два значения: "тост" - жареный кусок хлеба или восхваление в честь чего/кого-либо с поднятием бокалов. Второе значение используется с предлогом to, если говорится в чью честь произносится тост.

My favourite breakfast is toasts with melted chocolate. - Мой любимый завтрак - это тосты с плавленным шоколадом.
They have already raised a toast to him third time. - Они уже подняли тост за него в третий раз.

6 - глагол distinguish похож на изученный ранее глагол differ. Но они имеют некоторое различие. Differ значит быть непохожим (иметь разные черты), distinguish значит осознавать отличие или выделять что-то нечеткое.

I differ from you. - Я отличаюсь от тебя.
Children can't distinguish me from my brother. - Дети не могут отличить меня от моего брата.
Owls distinguish food even at night. - Совы отличают еду даже ночью.

7 - глагол reduce означает "уменьшить" размер, количество, степень чего-либо или привести кого-либо к более худшему состоянию (часто с предлогом to):

Our authority reduced us to it. - Наша власть привела нас к этому.

Look at these new words in sentences:

The chief reduced an amount of hired people.
Начальник сократил количество нанятых людей.
I can distinguish every detail of your model.
Я могу различить каждую деталь твоей модели.
The doctor wants to know what caused her depression.
Доктор хочет знать, что вызвало ее депрессию.
Use these tubes for your future model.
Используй эти трубы для своей будущей модели.
I hired the worker to change old pipes in the kitchen.
Я нанял рабочего поменять трубы на кухне.
He raised a toast to our new scheme.
Он поднял тост за нашу новую схему.
The holidays must reduce your depression.
Праздники должны уменьшить твою депрессию.
I just cut off a piece of bread as I didn't have any time to cook toasts.
Я просто отрезал кусок хлеба, так как у меня не было времени приготовить тосты.
Modern models are too thin.
Современные модели слишком худые.
It is more comfortable to use square tubes for your garage.
Удобнее использовать квадратные трубы для твоего гаража.
The scheme of our behaviour is almost the same.
Схема нашего поведения почти одинакова.
Little musicians left who plays a pipe.
Осталось мало музыкантов, которые играют на дудке.
The hire of instruments is better than their buying if you don't often use them.
Аренда инструментов лучше чем их покупка, если вы не часто используете их.
This scheme tells us how to treat depression.
Эта схема рассказывает нам как лечить депрессию.
The banker is nervous because he lost his smoking pipe.
Банкир нервничает, потому что он потерял свою курительную трубку.
He hires new models for every show.
Он нанимает новых моделей для каждого шоу.
The seller should reduce prices.
Этот продавец должен уменьшить цены.
Your toast sounds boring.
Твой тост звучит скучно.
The hire of things is a fast developing business.
Аренда вещей является быстро развивающимся бизнесом.

Continue to read the text.

Text: About a boy (chapter 9)

Chapter 9: Depressions

Will wanted to spend the rest of his life with Rachel, and he knew that he couldn't continue pretending to her that Marcus was his son. So he told her the truth one evening when they were having dinner in a Chinese restaurant.

"Oh," said Rachel. "So who's his natural father?"

"It's a guy called Clive who lives in Cambridge."

"Right. And are you friendly with him?"

"Yes. We spent Christmas together, actually."

"So... if you're not Marcus's natural father, and you don't live with him... how is he your son?"

"Yes," said Will. "It must look very confusing from the outside."

"Tell me how it is on the inside."

"It's just that kind of relationship. I'm old enough to be his father, he's old enough to be my son..."

"Did you ever live with Marcus's mother?"

"No. Listen, I never actually said he was my son. The words «I have a son called Marcus» never passed my lips. That's what you chose to believe."

"You mean ... I wanted to believe you had a son, so I just imagined it? I'm the one who was imagining things?"

Clearly Rachel thought that Will was crazy. But he felt she was beginning to see the funny side of the situation too. "But what about Marcus? You didn't just hire him for the afternoon. There's some kind of relationship there."

So Will told her everything about Marcus. Nearly everything anyway; he didn't tell her that he'd first met Marcus because he'd joined SPAT. He didn't think she would understand about SPAT.

She might think he had some kind of problem.

Rachel invited him back to her flat after the meal and they sat drinking coffee out of big blue cups.

"Why did you think Marcus would make you more interesting?" she asked.

"Was I more interesting?"

"Yes, I suppose you were."

"Why?"

"Because... you really want to know the truth? Because you seemed to be a shallow kind of person. You didn't do anything; you didn't seem to care about anything or have much to say - and then when you said you had a kid..."

"I didn't actually say..."

"I realized that I'd made a mistake about you. And I had made a mistake. You do care about Marcus, and you understand him, and you worry about him. You're not the shallow kind of guy I thought you were."

Will knew that Rachel was trying to make him feel better about everything, but he still felt bad. He'd known Marcus for only a few months, so what about the thirty-six years before that? And he didn't want to be interesting only because of his relationship with Marcus. He wanted to be interesting for himself.

Will was in love with Rachel and everything had changed. For the first time in his life he wanted to be deeply involved with someone.

***

Three or four weeks passed. Marcus saw Will, and he saw Ellie and Zoe at school. Will bought him some new glasses, and took him to have his hair cut, and played him some music by singers who he liked and Ellie didn't hate. He felt that he was changing, in his own body and in his head, and then his mum started crying again.

Just like before, there didn't seem to be any reason for it.

Finally, she started crying at breakfast again and Marcus knew that things were serious and that they were in trouble.

But one thing had changed for Marcus. When she had started crying at breakfast before, he had been alone. Now he had Will and Ellie.

"My mum's started crying again," he said to Will. It was a Thursday afternoon and they were in Will's kitchen, making toast.

"Oh," said Will. "Are you worried about it?"

"Of course. She's the same now as she was before. Worse." That wasn't true. Nothing could be worse than the last time, but he wanted to make sure Will knew it was serious.

"So what are you going to do?"

Marcus had thought that Will would help him. That's what he wanted. Wasn't that what friends were for? "What am I going to do? What are you going to do?"

"What am I going to do?" Will laughed, and then remembered that the situation wasn't funny. "Marcus, I can't do anything."

"You could talk to her."

"Why should she listen to me? Who am I? Nobody."

"You're not nobody. You're ... "

"You come round here for a cup of tea after school, but that doesn't mean I can make your mum feel better. I know I can't."

"I thought we were friends."

"Yes, Marcus, we're friends. But I'm not your dad, I'm not your uncle, and I'm not your big brother. I can tell you who Kurt Cobain is and what trainers to get, and that's all. Do you understand?"

"Yes."

But on the way home, Marcus thought about the way Will had said, «Do you understand?» to end the conversation. He knew teachers said that and parents said that, but he didn't think friends said that.

He wasn't really surprised about Will. He thought of Ellie as his best friend more than Will - not just because he loved her and wanted to go out with her, but because she was always nice to him. Ellie had told him that she knew about his mum trying to kill herself. Ellie's mum was a friend of Suzie's, and Suzie had told her.

But the next day, when Marcus went to find Ellie in her classroom at breaktime, she didn't seem very pleased to see him.

Zoe was sitting next to her, holding her hand.

"What's happened?" he asked.

"Haven't you heard?"

Marcus hated it when people said that to him because he never had. "I don't think so."

"Kurt Cobain."

"What about him?"

"He tried to kill himself. He took a lot of pills."

"Is he all right?"

"I think so. They pumped his stomach."

"Good."

"Nothing's good," said Ellie. "He'll do it, you know, in the end. They always do. He wants to die. It wasn't a cry for help. He hates this world."

Marcus suddenly felt sick. He'd imagined having a conversation with Ellie about his mum, and Ellie making him feel better, but it wasn't like that at all.

"How do you know?"

"You don't know him," said Ellie.

"You don't know him," Marcus shouted. "He's not even a real person. He's just a singer. He's just someone on a sweatshirt. It's not like he's anyone's mum."

"No, but he's someone's dad," said Ellie. "He's got a beautiful little girl and he still wants to die."

Marcus was very upset. He turned round and ran out. Did his mum feel the same way as Kurt Cobain? He went to the boys' toilets and shut himself inside the end toilet because it had hot water pipes running along the wall and you could sit on them.

After a few minutes someone came in and started kicking on the door.

"Are you in there, Marcus?" said Ellie. "I'm sorry. I'd forgotten about your mum. It's OK. She's not like Kurt. She's not going to try to kill herself again."

He paused for a moment, then unlocked the door and looked out. "How do you know?"

"Because you're right about him. He's not a real person."

"You're only saying that to make me feel better."

"OK, he's a real person. But he's a different kind of real person. He's like James Dean and Marilyn Monroe and Jimi Hendrix and all those people. He's not like your mum. You think I know things, but I don't. I don't know why Kurt Cobain feels like he does, or why your mum feels like she does. And I don't know what it feels like to be you. Quite frightening, I should think.

"Yes." Marcus started to cry then. It wasn't noisy crying - his eyes just filled with tears and they ran down his face - but it was still embarrassing. He'd never thought he'd cry in front of Ellie.

She came in and put her arm round him. "Don't listen to me. You know more than I do. You should be telling me things."

They sat on the hot water pipes together in silence, moving when they got too hot and waited until they felt like going back into the world.

***

Will knew that he should do something about Fiona and that he'd behaved badly towards Marcus. He was older than Marcus, he knew more... He should get involved, help the kid, look after him.

But he didn't want to have a conversation with Fiona about her depression. She would ask him what the meaning of life was - ask him why she should go on living. And Will couldn't tell her what the meaning was because he didn't know. But Fiona was lost and unhappy, and if he told her that life had no meaning, she might actually kill herself.

He decided to talk to Rachel about Fiona. They were in Rachel's kitchen, making coffee.

"A few years ago I got very depressed," said Rachel, "And I thought about killing myself, like Fiona. But I always thought I would do it tomorrow, never today. There were always a lot of reasons to continue living; there were too many things that I'd started but hadn't finished, and I wanted to see what happened."

"Fiona must have things like that too."

"I don't know," said Rachel. "Perhaps she doesn't. Why don't I talk to her?"

"You? She doesn't know you."

"It doesn't matter. And maybe you could learn to help her too if I showed you how. It's not so bad."

"OK," said Will, but he didn't want to think about Fiona just at that moment. He couldn't remember ever feeling as happy as he did with Rachel.

Cambridge ['keimbridʒ] -
Кембридж
























































































trainers - зд. кроссовки













breaktime - перерыв

























sweatshirt ['swetʃε:(r)t] -
толстовка
















































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Lesson 20 from radio station "VOA"

In this English USA lesson, Martin Learner visits with a farm couple. You will learn to distinguish between phrases about the present and the past.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 20, Part 1:

Martin: I like your farm, Walter.

Walter: Thanks. I like the farm too. I lived in town for seven years.

Martin: But you liked the farm?

Walter: Yes. My father was a farmer. I was a child. And then I was a student. I lived in the country for nineteen years.

Martin: Did you work with your father?

Walter: Of course. I worked in the morning and I worked in the evening.

Martin: Did you go to school?

Walter: Yes. I went to high school in town.

Walter: Some farmers don't like animals.

Martin: You have cows.

Walter: That's right. I like sheep too.

Martin: Do you grow corn ([kɔ:(r)n] - кукуруза) and beans ([bi:nz] - бобы, фасоль)?

Walter: Yes. But I have cows and sheep. Do you like sheep?

Martin: I like animals. But I live in the city.

Walter: Where is your home?

Martin: I live in Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор).

Walter: Do you have a family?

Martin: Yes. I have a wife, a son and a daughter.

Walter: Are they with you here?

Martin: No, they're in Baltimore. My wife is working.

Walter: My brother lives in Philadelphia ([filə'delfiə] - Филадельфия). That's in the East.

Martin: That's right.

Walter: My sister lives in the West. She lives in Los Angeles ([lɒs 'ændʒələs] - Лос-Анджелес). She lived in San Diego ([sæn di'eigəʊ] - Сан Диего) last year.

Martin: Is she married?

Walter: Yes, she is.

Martin: What does she do?

Walter: She makes airplanes. Her husband makes airplanes too.

Martin: Are your parents living?

Walter: Yes, they are.

Martin: Where do they live?

Walter: They live in San Diego. They lived with my sister.

Martin: Was your sister married?

Walter: No. She is married now. She married last year. She moved to Los Angeles. They stayed in San Diego.

Remember, when we talk about the past in English, the verb changes. "I live in town" means I live there at the present time. "I lived in town" means sometime in the past. Listen to these sentences:

Martin: I lived in town for seven years.

Martin: But you liked the farm?

Martin: I lived in the country for nineteen years.

Martin: Did you work with your father?

Martin: I worked in the morning and I worked in the evening.

Martin: Live. Lived.

Martin: Work. Worked.

Questions in the past often begin with the word "did." "Did" tells you the answer should be in past time. Listen to these questions and answers:

Martin: Did you work last year?

Walter: Yes, I worked with my father.

Martin: Did she live with her parents?

Walter: Yes, she lived with her parents.

Martin: Did they walk to town?

Walter: Yes, they walked to town.

Can you answer some of these questions about your past? Try to use full answer (how it is in previous sentences).

Martin: Did you work last year?

You: (Yes, I worked in the office, the bank .../No, I didn't work.)

Martin: Did you live in an apartment last year?

You: (Yes, I lived in an apartment/No, I didn't live in an apartment.)

Martin: Did you study last year?

You: (Yes, I studied in school/college/institute/No, I didn't study.)

Walter: Let's walk to the house. Do you want some coffee?

Martin: Yes, please.

Walter: See the corn?

Martin: Where?

Walter: Look to the south.

Martin: Is that south? I see the corn.

Walter: Now look to the west.

Martin: I can see soybeans (['sɔibinz] - соя).

Walter: That's right. I grow corn and beans.

Martin: Do you visit your mother and father?

Walter: My wife and I visited my mother and father last year.

Martin: Did you visit your sister?

Walter: No, we didn't. She visited us here.

Martin: Do you visit your brother?

Walter: No, he visited us too. We had a family reunion (воссоединение).

In the second part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner talks with a farm couple about their families. You will answer more questions about your family.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 20, Part 2:

Walter: Please sit down, Martin. Rebecca! We're here! Martin, this is my wife, Rebecca.

Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

Rebecca: Thank you. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. I like your house.

Rebecca: The farm houses are old. Coffee?

Martin: Please.

Rebecca: Walter?

Walter: Yes, please.

Rebecca: Did you see the farm?

Martin: Yes, I saw the cows and sheep.

Walter: We walked to the river. We talked about the family reunion.

Martin: I'm writing about farm families.

Rebecca: Did you visit the Kessler family reunion?

Martin: Yes, I did. I visited some farms too. May I ask some questions about your family?

Rebecca: OK. More coffee?

Martin: No, thanks. Do you have brothers and sisters?

Rebecca: I have two brothers.

Martin: Are they farmers?

Rebecca: One is a farmer.

Martin: Where does he live?

Rebecca: He lives north of here. He has two boys.

Martin: Two sons. No daughters?

Rebecca: That's right. They are very small. One son is four. One is two.

Martin: Where does your other brother live?

Rebecca: He lives in Chicago ([ʃi'ka:gəʊ] - Чикаго). He drives a truck.

Yes or no questions have a different sound from statements (['steitmənt] - утверждение). Listen to Martin Learner give some examples. He will ask a question, then make a statement. Notice the ends of the sentences:

Martin: Are they small? They are small.

Martin: Does he have two boys? He has two boys.

Martin: Does he live in Chicago? He lives in Chicago.

Listen again to the last word of each question and the last word of each answer:

Martin: Are they small? They are small.

Martin: Are they small? They are small.

Martin: Small? Small.

Martin: Small? Small.

Now you ask the question. Martin will make a statement. You change it to a question:

Martin: They are small.

You: (Are they small?)

Martin: They are large.

You: (Are they large?)

Martin: They are farmers.

You: (Are they farmers?)

Rebecca: Do you have a family, Martin?

Martin: Yes, I do. I have a wife and two children. Our home is in Baltimore. Do you have a large family?

Walter: I don't.

Rebecca: I do. My mother and father live in town. I have aunts and uncles in the East and in the West.

Martin: Are your grandparents living?

Rebecca: Yes, they are.

Martin: Where do they live?

Rebecca: My mother's parents live in town. My father's parents live in Phoenix ([fi:niks] - Феникс).

Martin: Do they work?

Rebecca: No, they're retired ([ri'taiə(r)d] - ушедший на пенсию).

Martin: What do your aunts and uncles do?

Rebecca: Everything.

Walter: That's right.

Martin: Tell me.

Rebecca: Two aunts are teachers. One uncle is an electrician ([i'lektriʃən] - электрик). Two - no and three uncles are farmers. One aunt is a secretary. One uncle works in a factory. More?

Can you answer more questions about your family (Full answers)?

Martin: Do you have a family?

You: (Yes, I have a family/ No, I don't have a family.)

Martin: Do you have an aunt?

You: (Yes, I have an (two, three... ) aunt(s)/ No, I don't have any aunt.)

Martin: Do you have an uncle?

You: (Yes, I have an (two, three... ) uncle(s)/ No, I don't have any uncle.)

Rebecca: One aunt is a housewife. She has small children. Two aunts are retired. One uncle is retired.

Martin: You do have a large family.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

attend - посещать, присутствовать ([ə'tend])
subject - предмет (['sʌbdʒikt])
introduction - представление, введение, внедрение ([intrə'dʌkʃn])
softness - мягкость (['sɒftnəs])
traffic - движение (['træfik])
headphone - наушник (['hedfəʊn])
bend - изгиб, гнуть, сгибать ([bend])
leather - кожа (['leðə(r)])
compare - сравнивать ([kəm'peə(r)])
silly - глупый (['sili])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

hire - прокат, наем, нанимать ([haiə(r)])
scheme - схема ([ski:m])
distinguish - различать ([dis'tiŋgwiʃ])
detail - деталь (['di:teil])
pipe - труба ([paip])
reduce - уменьшить ([ri'dju:s])
depression - дипрессия ([di'preʃən])
model - модель (['mɒdl])
toast - тост ([təʊst])
tube - труба ([tju:b])

The new verbs of this lesson are distinguish, hire and reduce. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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