English for All

Lesson 87: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: About a boy (chapter 7)
  • Lesson 18 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

base1 [beis] - база, базировать
material2 [mə'tiriəl] - материал, материальный
nature3 ['neitʃə(r)] - природа
quiz [qwiz] - опрос, векторина, проверять знания
project4 ['prɒdʒekt] - проект
structure ['strʌktʃə(r)] - структура
supermarket ['su:pə(r)ma:(r)kit] - супермаркет
union5 ['ju:niən] - союз
vegetarian6 [vedʒi'teəriən] - вегетарианец, вегетарианский
relax7 [ri'læks] - расслабляться

1 - существительное base переводится на русский язык как "база", и имеет два схожих значения:

  • "Основание" - нижняя часть объекта или то, на чем основывается его существование.

  • The base of the bridge doesn't have enough strength to sustain such weight. - Основание моста не имеет достаточной прочности, чтобы выдержать такой вес.
    The base of their authority is the fear of people. - Основание их власти - это страх людей.
  • "База" - место, которое является центром организации.

  • Our base is situated in Moscow. - Наша база располагается в Москве.

Глагол имеет также два значения, действия существительного. "Базировать" что-то (близко к глаголу располагать) и "основывать" (использовать как основание, начало чего-либо). С глаголом base, во втором значение, часто ставится предлог on, если говорится "на" чем основывается (базируется) что-либо:

He based his idea on her words. - Он основывал свою идею на ее словах.

2 - слово material является не только существительным "материал", но и прилагательным "материальный, вещественный":

Which material do you choose for your dress? - Какой материал вы выбираете для своего платья?
I prefer to speak about more material things. - Я предпочитаю поговорить о более вещественных вещах.

3 - существительное nature имеет два значения, схожих с русскими значениями "природа":

  • "Природа" - весь живой мир, что окружает нас (вода, земля, растения, животные...).

  • Our family likes the summer nature in the village after the long winter city. - Наша семья любит летнею природу в деревне после долгого зимнего города.
  • "Основа" чего-либо - похоже на существительное base.

  • I want to know the nature of these problems. - Я хочу знать природу этих проблем.

От этого существительного образуется прилагательное natural (['nætʃrəl] ) c помощью суффикса -al, которое означает, что объект является естественным для окружающей его среды или природным (по отношению к природе):

His behaviour was natural. - Его поведение было естественным.
The farmer grows his animals using their natural food. - Фермер растит его животных, используя их естественную еду.

Обратите внимание на изменение чтение гласной a в первом слоге у существительного и прилагательного.

4 - американское произношение слова project немного отличается: ['pra:dʒekt] .

5 - существительное union означает "союз" каких-либо объектов (политический, торговый, общественный и др.). Наиболее известный в современном мире - это European Union.

6 - вы уже знаете существительное vegetable. От него образуется другое существительное и прилагательное vegetarian.

7 - глагол relax немного похож на изученный ранее глагол rest в значение "отдыхать". Relax часто используется как не просто "отдых", а скорее отвлечение, расслабление от текущей деятельности с возможным переключением на другое более увлекательное занятие. Если указывается "чем" расслабляется объект, то после relax обычно ставится предлог with. Глагол rest - это именно отдых, ничего не делание (возможно сон):

He decided to relax with reading his favourite book. - Он решил расслабиться чтением его любимой книги.
He decided to rest after a lot of hours of work. - Он решил отдохнуть после многих часов работы.

Look at these new words in sentences:

We were quizzed about the nature of his actions.
Мы были опрошены о природе его действий.
The union of the city supermarkets offered the project of the new small shops along that road.
Союз городских супермаркетов предложил проект новых небольших магазинчиков вдоль той дороги.
I like the structure of this material.
Мне нравится структура этого материала.
Our supermarket sells products only for vegetarians.
Наш супермаркет продает продукты только для вегетарианцев.
The chief found a big mistake in the base of my project.
Начальник нашел большую ошибку в основание моего проекта.
Try to relax with what you like the most.
Попытайся расслабиться тем, что ты любишь больше всего.
All your project were destroyed after some time.
Все твои проекты были разрушены после некоторого времени.
A lot of people like to watch quizzes on TV.
Многим людям нравится смотреть викторины по телевизору.
Any vegetarian should like nature.
Любой вегетарианец должен любить природу.
Where is the base of these supermarkets?
Где база этих супермаркетов?
Before you buy something, check its structure.
Перед тем как купить что-то, проверь его структуру.
The base of this building doesn't look nice.
Основание этого здания не выглядит хорошо.
I always relax in nature.
Я всегда расслабляюсь на природе.
This project is based on our money.
Этот проект основан на наши деньги.
People work better in natural light.
Люди работают лучше при естественном свете.
My friend was invited to the quiz instead of me.
Мой друг был приглашен на викторину вместо меня.
Vegetarian food is natural.
Вегетарианская еда естественная.
Scientists couldn't understand its structure.
Ученые не могли понять его структуру.
Our union is based on the future project.
Наш союз основывается на будущем проекте.
I didn't order the vegetarian dish.
Я не заказывал вегетарианское блюдо.

Let's continue reading the text.

Text: About a boy (chapter 7)

Chapter 7: Christmas at Fiona's

Will was feeling depressed. It was only 19 November, but he had heard his dad's Christmas song in a supermarket that morning.

Will hated Christmas: people knocked on his door, singing the song he hated more than any other song in the world, and expected him to give them money. His dad had hated Christmas too, but for a different reason: it reminded him of how badly he had failed in his life. His famous Christmas song was the only successful song he had ever written. At Christmas, Will's dad had always got depressed and angry and drunk a lot, so it had never been a very happy time for Will.

Since his parents had died, Will had usually spent the holiday with friends, or girlfriends' families, but this year he had no plans.

There was no girlfriend, and so there were no girlfriend's parents.

He decided that he would sit at home and watch old films on TV and get drunk, but that didn't seem very Christmassy. He thought about spending Christmas Day with a family - not his family because he didn't have one, but a family. He definitely didn't want to spend Christmas with Marcus and Fiona, though - eating vegetarian food, not watching TV, singing Christmas songs with his eyes closed. But the next afternoon Marcus came round and invited Will to spend Christmas with them.

"Ummm," said Will. "That's... very kind of you."

"But you're coming?"

"I don't know."

"Why not?"

"Because."

"Don't you want to come?"

"Yes, of course I do, but... what about your mum?"

"She'll be there too."

"Yes, I know. But she wouldn't want me there."

"I've already spoken to her about it. I said I wanted to invite a friend, and she said OK. She guessed it was you. I haven't got any other friends."

"All right," Will said at last. "I'd love to spend Christmas with you, Marcus."

When he arrived at Marcus and Fiona's flat on Christmas Day, he was pleased to find other people there too. There was Marcus's dad Clive, and his girlfriend Lindsey, and his girlfriend's mum, all sitting in a line on the sofa. Will was very surprised that Fiona and Clive were still friendly although their relationship had finished some time ago. The people in SPAT hadn't been like that about their broken relationships - they had been angry and unhappy.

Will gave Marcus a CD of Nevermind and a Kurt Cobain T-shirt, and Marcus gave Will a book of Countdown quizzes.

Fiona gave Will The Single Parent's Guide as a joke.

"What's the joke?" asked Lindsey.

"Nothing," said Will quickly.

"Will pretended to have a kid so he could join a single parents' group," Marcus told her.

"Oh," Lindsey said. She and her mum and Clive looked at Will with interest, but he just smiled.

Clive gave Marcus some computer games and CDs and sweatshirts. But Fiona's presents to Marcus weren't very interesting at all, Will thought - books, and a hairy jumper, and some piano music. But Marcus was really pleased with them, and for the first time, Will understood that Marcus was a good kid.

He didn't need expensive presents to be happy.

They had lunch and then watched TV. Marcus was happy and Will felt very relaxed. But later in the afternoon, Suzie arrived with Megan. Fiona had told her that Will didn't really have a two-year-old son called Ned, but Will hadn't seen Suzie since then and now he felt really embarrassed and ashamed. He stood up, and then he sat down again, and then he stood up again and said he had to go.

"Don't be so silly, Will," said Fiona.

So Will sat down again and Suzie sat next to him, but she refused to speak to him.

Megan went over to the Christmas tree and Fiona handed her a present. "This is for you, Megan," she said.

Megan stood holding her present and looked around the room. Then she walked over to Will and tried to give it to him.

Will didn't move.

"Well, take it from her, you fool," said Suzie.

"It's not my present," said Will, but Megan continued to hold it out until he reached for it. "Now what?" he said.

"Open it with her," said Suzie.

Will helped Megan open the present. It was a plastic musical toy. They both looked at it.

"Now play with her," Suzie said angrily. "It's easy to see that you don't know anything about kids. But you should learn. It would be useful to you in your kind of work."

"What is your kind of work?" asked Lindsey politely.

"He doesn't do anything," Marcus said. "His dad wrote a famous song and he earns a million pounds a minute."

"He pretends he has a child so he can join single parents' groups and meet single mothers," said Suzie.

"Yes, but he doesn't get paid for that," said Marcus.

Will stood up again, but this time he didn't sit down. "Thanks for the lunch," he said. "I'm going home now."

"Suzie has a right to be angry with you," Fiona said.

"Yes, and now I have a right to go home."

"But I don't want him to go yet," said Marcus suddenly. "He's my friend. I invited him. I should be able to tell him when he goes home. Why is everyone being so horrible to him? He only pretended to have a kid for a couple of weeks. That's nothing. Kids at school do worse than that every day."

"Yes, but Will isn't a kid," said Suzie.

"Yes, but he's behaved better since then. He never wanted me round his flat every day. I just went. And he bought me those shoes and he listens when I say I'm having a bad time at school. And he knew who Kirk O'Bane was."

"Kurt Cobain," said Will.

"And you all do wrong things too sometimes," said Marcus. "I mean... " He had to be careful here. He knew he couldn't say anything about the hospital or Fiona. "I mean, how did I first become friends with Will?"

"You threw a great big loaf of bread at a duck's head and killed it," said Will.

Suzie and Fiona started laughing.

"Is that true, Marcus?" asked his father.

"There was something wrong with it," Marcus said. "I think it was going to die anyway."

Suzie and Fiona laughed even more. The three people on the sofa looked shocked. Will sat down again.

















































CD [si: di:] - Си Ди









sweatshirt ['swetʃε:(r)t] -
толстовка
piano [pi'ænəʊ] -
пианино






silly ['sili] -
глупый























































_______________________________________________

Lesson 18 from radio station "VOA"

In this English USA lesson, you will learn to answer questions about your family. Martin Learner visits a farm family and talks about their family and others.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 18, Part 1:

Lisa: Let's sit here, Mr. Learner.

Martin: Please, call me Martin. May I ask some questions?

Lisa: Of course.

Martin: May I record your answers?

Lisa: Yes.

Martin: Do you have a family?

Lisa: Yes, I have a husband.

Martin: What is your husband's name?

Lisa: Eric.

Martin: Eric. That's right. We've met.

Martin: Do you have children?

Lisa: Yes. We have two children.

Martin: Are they boys or girls?

Lisa: We have one boy and one girl.

Martin: Wonderful. You have a son and a daughter. Are your mother and father living?

Lisa: Yes, they are.

Martin: Do they live here?

Lisa: No, they don't. They live in town.

Martin: Do you have a large farm?

Lisa: Oh, yes. It's a very large farm. The farm was my father's farm.

Martin: And you have a very large house.

Lisa: It's a wonderful house. The house is old. Here's Eric.

Eric: Hello. Martin?

Martin: That's right.

Eric: How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

Eric: Fine thanks.

Lisa: We're talking about families.

Eric: I have a large family.

Martin: Are your parents living?

Eric: My mother is living. My father isn't living.

Martin: Where does your mother live?

Eric: She lives in California ([kæli'fɔ:(r)niə] - Калифорния).

Martin: Do you have brothers and sisters?

Eric: I have three brothers and two sisters.

Martin: Where do they live?

Eric: Two brothers live in town. One lives on a farm.

Martin: What do they do? One is a farmer?

Eric: That's right. Two brothers have businesses in town.

Martin: Lisa, do you have brothers and sisters?

Lisa: I have a sister.

Martin: Where does she live?

Lisa: She lives in Texas (['teksəs] - Техас).

Martin: Is she married?

Lisa: No, she isn't.

Martin: What does she do?

Lisa: She's in the army.

Martin: Are your sisters married, Eric?

Eric: One sister lives in Montana (mɒntænə] - Монтана). She's married to a rancher (['ræntʃər] - хозяин ранчо). One lives in California. My mother lives with this sister.

Martin: What does this sister do?

Eric: She has a business.

Lisa: She's a photographer.

Martin: That's interesting.

People like to know about families. Listen to some questions and answers about families. All the questions can be answered with short answers "yes, I do" or "no, I don't".

Martin: Do you have a family?

Lisa: Yes, I do.

Martin: Do you have children?

Lisa: Yes, we do.

Martin: Do you have brothers and sisters?

Eric: Yes, I do.

Martin: Are your parents living?

Lisa: Yes, they are.

Can you answer these questions about yourself and your family?

Martin: Do you have a family?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you have children?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Do you have brothers and sisters?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't.)

Martin: Are your parents living?

You: (Yes, they are/No, they aren't.)

Lisa: Where are our children?

In the second part of the lesson Martin Learner continues to talk with a farm family about their farm and their family. You will learn to answer questions about your family members - where they live, and what they do.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 18, Part 2:

Eric: This is Max. And this is Meg.

Martin: Hi, Max. Hi, Meg.

Max: Hi.

Meg: Hi.

Martin: I'm Martin. How old are you, Max.

Max: I'm fifteen.

Martin: Are you in high school?

Max: Yes. I'm in tenth grade.

Martin: Where is your school?

Max: It's in town.

Martin: How old are you, Meg?

Meg: Eleven.

Martin: Where is your school?

Meg: I don't know.

Lisa: It's east of here.

Martin: It's in the country?

Eric: That's right.

Martin: Meg, can I ask some more questions?

Meg: OK.

Martin: I want to ask some questions about your family. Do you have uncles?

Meg: Yes. Three.

Martin: Where do they live?

Meg: Two live in town. One lives over there?

Martin: Where?

Eric: West of here.

Meg: See that road? Over there.

Martin: Max, do you have grandmothers and grandfathers?

Max: Yes. Two grandmothers are living and one grandfather is living.

Martin: Where does your grandfather live?

Max: He lives in town now. He lived here.

Martin: What does he do?

Max: He was a farmer.

Eric: This was his farm.

Martin: Meg, where do your grandmothers live?

Meg: One lives in town. One lives in California.

Martin: What do your uncles do?

Meg: Uncle Gene is a policeman.

Max: Uncle Chet is a baker.

Can you answer questions about Lisa's family? Do the best you can.

Martin: Does Lisa have a family?

You: (Yes, she does)

Martin: Does Lisa have a husband?

You: (Yes, she does)

Martin: What does Lisa's husband do?

You: (He is a farmer)

Martin: What did Lisa's father do?

You: (He was a farmer)

Martin: Max, is one uncle a farmer?

Max: Yes, he is. He has a small farm.

Martin: What does he grow?

Max: Corn ([kɔ:(r)n] - кукуруза). All the farmers grow corn.

Meg: He grows beans ([bi:nz] - бобы, фасоль) too.

Martin: soybeans (['sɔibinz] - соя)?

Meg: Yes.

Martin: Does he have animals?

Meg: Oh, yes!

Martin: Do you like animals?

Meg: I like some animals. I like horses.

Martin: Can you ride?

Meg: Yes, I can.

Martin: Max, can you ride?

Max: Of course.

Meg: I don't like cows.

Martin: Does your uncle have cows?

Meg: Yes. He has big cows. He has two hundred cows.

Max: No, he doesn't.

Meg: Yes, he does. He has two hundred cows.

Max: No, he doesn't. He has fifty cows.

Meg: No, he doesn't. He has two hundred cows.

Max: Fifty.

Meg: Two hundred.

Lisa: Children! Stop that!

Martin: Lisa, did your father have cows?

Lisa: No, he didn't. He didn't like animals.

Meg: He liked corn and beans.

Lisa: That's right.

Martin: Did he like horses?

Lisa: No. He only liked corn and soybeans.

Martin: You have a very big house, Meg. Do you like your house?

Meg: It's old. But I like it.

Max: I like uncle Gene's house. It's new.

Lisa: Our home is wonderful!

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

prefer - предпочитать ([pri'fε:(r)])
ability - способность ([ə'biləti])
definite - определенный, точный (['definət])
female - самка, женский (['fi:meil])
exist - существовать ([ig'zist])
helpful - полезный ([helpfl])
depress - угнетать, подавлять ([di'press])
skill - навык, умение ([skil])
male - самец, мужской ([meil])
complaint - жалоба, недовольствие ([kəm'pleint])
university - университет ([ju:ni'vε:(r)səti])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

nature - природа (['neitʃə(r)])
supermarket - супермаркет (['su:pə(r)ma:(r)kit])
structure - структура (['strʌktʃə(r)])
relax - расслабляться ([ri'læks])
material - материал ([mə'tiriəl])
project - проект (['prɒdʒekt])
union - союз (['ju:niən])
natural - естественный, природный (['nætʃrəl])
base - база, базировать ([beis])
quiz - опрос, векторина, проверять знания ([qwiz])
vegetarian - вегетарианец, вегетарианский ([vedʒi'teəriən])

The new verbs of this lesson are base, quiz and relax. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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