English for All

Lesson 86: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: About a boy (chapter 6)
  • Lesson 17 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

ability1 [ə'biləti] - способность
complaint2 [kəm'pleint] - жалоба, недовольствие
female ['fi:meil] - самка, женский
male [meil] - самец, мужской
skill1 [skil] - навык, умение
university3 [ju:ni'vε:(r)səti] - университет
exist4 [ig'zist] - существовать
depress [di'press] - угнетать, подавлять
prefer5 [pri'fε:(r)] - предпочитать
definite6 ['definət] - определенный, точный
helpful2 [helpfl] - полезный

1 - два существительных ability и skill очень похожи по смыслу, и в предложениях они обычно могут взаимозаменяться. Но все таки их смысл различен: ability - это то, что мы приобретаем с рождением, от природы (чтобы легче запомнить его, вспомните похожее слово able). Skill - это обычно "умение", которое мы приобретаем с опытом. Посмотрите на примеры:

He has an ability to run a hundred kilometers without any pause. - У него есть способность пробежать сотню километров без перерыва.
He has a skill to work with any tools. - У него есть умение работать любым инструментом.

2 - существительное complaint образовано от изученного ранее глагола complain с помощью суффикса -t.

Прилагательное helpful образовано от глагола help с помощью суффикса -ful. По значению оно значит практически одно и то же, что и прилагательное useful, сравните их перевод: объект приносящий пользу и объект приносящий помощь, то есть смысл почти одинаков.

3 - существительное university является еще одним названием образовательного учреждения и похоже по значению с изученным ранее существительным institute.

4 - глагол exist используется в двух значениях:

  • Когда говорится, что объект находится, есть в реальности, "существует":

  • God exists. - Бог существует.
  • Когда говорится, что объект "живет" в определенных обстоятельствах, условиях:

  • She exists on his help. - Она живет за счет его помощи.

5 - после глагола prefer может стоять и инфинитив, и герундий, не меняя значения предложения:

I prefer to get up/getting up after 10 am. - Я предпочитаю вставать после 10 часов утра.

Если вы говорите чему больше предпочитаете что-либо, то используйте предлог to, хотя допускается ставить и предлог than:

I prefer get up in the afternoon to the early morning. - Я предпочитаю вставать после полудня, чем ранним утром.
Fruits are prefered to vegetables. - Фрукты предпочитаются овощам.

6 - прилагательное defenite похоже на изученное ранее certain и означает, что объект является определенным, ясным:

We found the definite decision. - Мы нашли определенное решение.
Everything was definite about my future plans. - Все было определенно на счет моих будущих планов.
От него образуется наречие образа действия definitely (['definətli] - определенно, обязательно ) с помощью суффикса -ly:

You will definitely learn English. - Вы обязательно выучите английския язык.

По значению оно похоже с изученными ранее наречиями surely и certainly.

Look at these new words in sentences

Your abilities let you to choose any university.
Твои способности позволяют тебе выбрать любой институт.
We prefer more helpful things.
Мы предпочитаем более полезные вещи.
They definitely exist only in water.
Они определенно существуют только в воде.
All these complaints depress me.
Все эти жалобы угнетают меня.
The scientists wanted to find the female and male of these type of birds.
Ученые хотели найти найти самку и самца этого типа птиц.
I got a lot of skills while I studied at university.
Я получил много умений, пока учился в университете.
How many complaints do you get during your work day?
Как много жалоб ты получаешь в течение твоего рабочего дня?
I definitely prefer living to existing.
Я определенно предпочитаю "житье" существованию.
Your bad mood depresses everybody.
Твое плохое настроение угнетает всех.
Usually males are stonger than females.
Обычно самцы сильнее чем самки.
Where did you get such a helpful skill?
Где ты получил такой полезный скил?
Your abilities are prefered to his ones in modern world.
Твои способности предпочитаются его в современном мире.
This annoying man has the perfect skill to write complaints.
Этот раздражающий человек имеет совершенное умение писать жалобы.
The manager prefered more definite answers from his workers.
Менеджер предпочитал более определенные ответы от его рабочих.
I don't want to be depressed because of you.
Я не хочу быть угнетенным из-за тебя.
This animal is definitely looking for a female.
Это животное определенно ищет самку.
Why do you prefer this woman to your wife?
Почему ты предпочитаешь эту женщину своей жене?
All helpful goods are bought from opening of our store.
Все полезные товары скупаются с открытия нашего магазина.
Males of this kind don't exist anymore.
Самцов этого вида больше не существует.
You have a lot of abilities, but it doesn't give you any skills.
У тебя есть много способностей, но это не дает тебе ни какого умения.

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: About a boy (chapter 6)

Chapter 6: Ellie

Will hadn't seen Marcus for a week and hadn't thought about him much. He preferred watching Countdown alone anyway.

Then Fiona phoned.

"Marcus seems to think he needs an adult male in his life. Like a father. He talked about you."

"Listen, Fiona, I definitely don't need a son in my life. Why doesn't he use his own father as a father?"

"His father lives in Cambridge. It's a long way"

"You told me not to see Marcus again. Fine. I told you I didn't want to see Marcus again. And now you're telling me... I don't understand."

"Listen," said Fiona. "Can we meet tomorrow night for a drink to discuss all this?"

They met in a quiet pub. Will had never been alone with Fiona before. He didn't find her attractive and he certainly didn't want to sleep with her. But conversations with her were never dull.

"I've always been worried about Marcus not having a father around," said Fiona. "But he's always told me it didn't matter. Then, when I said I didn't want him to see you, he said he needed a father."

"He said that because he wanted to win the argument. Never trust a human male when he talks about his feelings."

"Really? Well, maybe it's best if he doesn't see you."

"What do you want me to do if he rings the doorbell?"

"Don't let him in."

"Right."

Marcus was waiting for Fiona at home. He didn't like the idea of his mum talking to Will because he'd stopped believing that he and his mum and Will and Ned were going to live together in Will's flat. Ned didn't exist, and Will and Fiona didn't like each other very much.

When Fiona came back, he looked at her face to see if she was angry or depressed, but she seemed OK.

"Did you have a good time"

"It was OK. But you're not going round there again. He's not going to answer the door. He told me."

Marcus wasn't worried. He knew how loudly Will's doorbell rang inside the flat, and he knew he could ring it for a very long time.

Fiona had made a complaint to the school about Marcus's new trainers being stolen, so he had to go and see the head teacher, Mrs Morrison. He was waiting outside her office when a girl called Ellie McCrae came and sat down next to him. Ellie was fifteen and she was famous in the school. She wore a lot of black eye make-up and cut her own hair, and she was always in trouble, usually for something serious.

They sat in silence for a time, then Marcus thought he'd try to talk to Ellie. His mum was always saying he should talk to people at school.

"Hello, Ellie."

"How does a little boy like you know my name?"

"You're famous." He knew this was a mistake immediately.

"What am I famous for?"

"Don't know."

"Yes, you do. I'm famous because I'm always in trouble. Do you know what I'm in trouble for this time? It's this sweatshirt. They don't want me to wear it, and I don't want to take it off, so there's going to be an argument."

Marcus looked at Ellie's sweatshirt. It had a picture on it of a guy with long blond hair, big eyes and half a beard.

"Who's that?" he asked politely.

"Don't you know? It's Kirk O'Bane."

"Oh, yes." Marcus had never heard of Kirk O'Bane, but that wasn't surprising - he'd never heard of anybody. "What does he do?"

"He's a footballer. He plays for Manchester United."

"Does he?" Marcus thought that the guy on Ellie's sweatshirt looked more like a singer than a footballer. Footballers weren't sad, usually, and this man looked sad.

Just then Mrs Morrison's door opened and two young kids came out. "Come in, Marcus," said Mrs Morrison.

Marcus's talk with Mrs Morrison didn't go very well. She asked him about the boys who stole his trainers and he said he didn't know who they were. This wasn't true, of course, but he didn't want any more trouble from them.

"Marcus, if the other kids are bullying you, why don't you just keep out of their way?"

Marcus was annoyed. Did she think he was stupid? Did she think he went looking for trouble? "I have tried," he said.

"Maybe you haven't tried hard enough."

Marcus stood up to go. He'd had enough. She wasn't going to be helpful because she didn't like him. Nobody at this school liked him and he didn't understand why.

"Sit down, Marcus. I haven't finished with you."

"But I've finished with you."

He had never been rude to a teacher before and he was very surprised at himself. He walked out of Mrs Morrison's office, and out of the school.

Marcus was walking slowly along Upper Street when Will saw him. Will was driving back from the supermarket, listening to loud music in his car. What was Marcus doing out of school at two o'clock in the afternoon, he wondered.

At exactly 4.15 that afternoon, right in the middle of Countdown, Marcus rang his doorbell. At first Will didn't answer, but Marcus rang and rang. Will turned off the TV and put on some music by the pop group Nirvana, hoping that Marcus would go away. But Marcus didn't stop ringing the bell, so finally Will opened the door and let him in.

"You shouldn't be here."

"I came to ask you something. I want you to take me and a friend to a football match."

"You don't like football."

"I do now," said Marcus. "I like Manchester United. And I like a player called Kirk O'Bane. He's got long blond hair and a beard."

"Marcus, there isn't a player called O'Bane who plays for Manchester United. I know all the players and there's nobody with long blond hair and a beard. There was a player called O'Kane who played for Nottingham about twenty-five years ago. What lessons did you have this afternoon?"

Marcus looked at him, trying to work out why he was asking the question. "History, and then... umm... "

"Marcus, I saw you this afternoon."

"What, in school?"

"Well, I didn't see you in school, did I? Because you weren't there. I drove past you on Upper Street."

"It was Mrs Morrison's fault. The head teacher. She told me to keep out of their way - the boys who stole my trainers." Marcus began to get upset, and to speak more quickly. "They followed me! How can I keep out of their way if they follow me?"

"All right, Marcus, calm down. Did you tell her that?"

"Of course. But she didn't take any notice."

"Right. So go home and tell your mum this. It's no good telling me."

"I'm not telling her. She's got enough problems without me. Why can't you go and see her? Mrs Morrison."

"You're joking. Listen, Marcus. I'm not your father, or your uncle, or any member of your family. No head teacher is going to take any notice of what I say. You've got to stop thinking I know the answer to anything, because I don't."

"You know about things. You knew about the trainers. And you know about Kirk O'Bane. The footballer."

Suddenly Will realized who Marcus was talking about. "It's not Kirk O'Bane, you fool, it's Kurt Cobain. The singer with Nirvana."

"I thought he must be a singer," said Marcus. "I didn't know about him, and my mum wouldn't either, but you did. You see, you know things. You can help."

It was then, for the first time, that Will understood the kind of help that Marcus needed. Fiona had given him the idea that Marcus needed an adult male in his life, but that was wrong.

Marcus needed help to be a kid. And, unfortunately for Will, that was exactly the kind of help that he could give. Will couldn't tell Marcus how to grow up, or how to cope with a mother who wanted to kill herself. But he could certainly tell him that Kurt Cobain wasn't a footballer.

Marcus went back to school the following day. Nobody had noticed that he had been absent the afternoon before, so he didn't get into trouble. In the morning break he found Ellie and a friend from her class, Zoe, by the drinks machine. Ellie was wearing her Kurt Cobain sweatshirt.

"Kurt Cobain doesn't play for Manchester United," he told her. "He plays... he sings... for Nirvana. A friend of mine has got one of their CDs. Nevermind."

"Thanks for telling me," said Ellie and laughed. "What year's your friend in? I didn't think anyone in this school liked Nirvana. And what do you think of them?"

"He's left school. He's quite old. And I don't know what I think of Nirvana." Will had played him some of their music the evening before. It had been very noisy with a lot of shouting, but there had been some quiet bits too. He didn't think he would ever like it as much as Joni Mitchell or Mozart, but he could understand why Ellie might like it.

"It's a bit noisy," said Marcus, "But the picture on the cover is very interesting." It was a picture of a baby, swimming after a dollar note. Will had said something about the picture, but he couldn't remember what it was. "I think the cover has a meaning. Something about society."

Ellie and Zoe looked at each other and laughed.

"You're very funny," said Zoe. "Who are you?"

"Marcus."

"Cool name," said Zoe, and they laughed again. "See you around, Marcus."

It was the longest conversation he'd had with anyone at school for weeks. Later, he told Will about Ellie.

"Can I invite her round to your flat?" he asked.

"I'm not sure she'd come, Marcus. How old is she? Fifteen? I'm not sure fifteen-year-old girls want to go around with twelve-year-old boys. She probably has a 25-year-old boyfriend who rides a Harley Davidson."

Marcus hadn't thought of that. "I don't want to go out with her. She wouldn't be interested in someone like me. But we can come round here and listen to your Nirvana CDs, can't we?"

"She's probably heard them already."

Marcus was getting annoyed with Will. Why didn't he want him to make friends? "OK, forget it then."

"I'm sorry, Marcus. I'm glad you spoke to Ellie today. But a two-minute conversation with someone who's laughing at you... I'm not sure this relationship is going to last."

Marcus wasn't listening. Ellie and her friend had said he was funny, and he'd made them laugh. That had made him feel good, and he knew he could make them laugh again. The next day he saw them again by the drinks machine.

"Ellie, how old is your boyfriend?" The girls laughed and Marcus felt happy."My friend Will said he's probably about twenty-five and rides a Harley Davidson."

"He's a hundred and two," said Ellie. "How old's your girlfriend? She probably wants to kill me, doesn't she?"

"I haven't got one," said Marcus, and the girls laughed again.

They were laughing all the time now.

Ellie and Zoe came looking for Marcus at lunch time. He was at his desk eating sandwiches when they came into his classroom, calling his name. Almost every kid in the room stopped what they were doing and turned round. You could see what they were thinking: Ellie and Marcus? Even Nicky and Mark, who hadn't spoken to him for weeks, looked up from their Gameboy.

"What are you all staring at? Marcus is our friend, aren't you, Marcus? Let's go to our classroom. You don't want to stay here with these boring little kids, do you?"

Some of the kids turned red, but nobody said anything.

Nobody wanted to argue with Ellie. They watched as Marcus walked from his desk to where Ellie and Zoe were standing. When he got there, Ellie gave him a kiss.

Marcus felt very proud as he walked through the school with Ellie and Zoe. The other kids, and even the teachers, stared at them in surprise. When they got to Ellie's classroom, Ellie made him stand outside. He could hear her shouting to the other kids.

"OK, listen, everybody. I want you to meet Marcus. He's the only other person in the whole school who likes Kurt Cobain. Come in, Marcus."

He walked in, and everybody laughed when they saw him. Ellie and Zoe stood beside him and Marcus felt great.

Cambridge ['keimbridʒ] -
Кембридж




dull [dʌl] -
скучный
























trainers - зд. кроссовки

make-up - макияж













sweatshirt ['swetʃε:(r)t] -
толстовка

blond [blɒnd] -
белокурый






Manchester ['mæntʃistə(r)] -
Манчестер





















rude [ru:d] -
грубый


supermarket ['su:pə(r)ma:(r)kit] -
супермаркет



















































absent ['æbsənt] -
отсутствующий



CD [si: di:] - Си Ди
nevermind - неважно





bits - зд. биты








































sandwich ['sændwidʒ] -
бутерброд

gameboy - игровая приставка





_______________________________________________

Lesson 17 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner talks to some people at a farmers' meeting. You will learn to answer questions about your home.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 17, Part 1:

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner.

Wilt: I'm Wilt Brauer. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

Wilt: Fine thanks. This is Mrs. Brauer.

Martin: Good evening, Mrs. Brauer.

Emily: I'm Emily. What do you do, Mr. Learner.

Martin: I'm a reporter. May I ask some questions?

Wilt: Of course.

Martin: Are you a farmer?

Wilt: Yes, I am.

Martin: Are all these men farmers?

Wilt: Yes, they are.

Emily: Some women are farmers too.

Wilt: Emily is a good farmer.

Emily: Yes, we're both farmers. Would you like some coffee?

Martin: Yes, please.

Emily: Come with me.

Martin: Thank you.

Emily: You're welcome. Have you met Chuck Kessler?

Martin: No, I haven't. Hello, how are you?

Chuck: Fine thanks. Who are you?

Martin: Martin Learner. Are you a farmer?

Chuck: Oh, yes. We're all farmers.

Martin: Where do you live?

Chuck: I live in the country.

Emily: He and Mrs. Kessler live in a big house east of here.

Martin: Where do you live, Emily?

Emily: We live south of here. We live in a small house.

Chuck: Where do you live? Do you live on a farm?

Martin: No, I don't. I live in Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор). I live in an apartment.

Chuck: Do you like the city?

Martin: Yes. I like the country too. But my home is in the city.

Martin: This is good coffee.

Emily: Thanks. Have you met Lisa Jankusky?

Martin: No, I haven't.

Lisa: I'm Lisa. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

Lisa: Fine thanks.

Martin: Are you a farmer?

Lisa: No, I'm not. I'm a housewife.

Martin: Do you live here in town?

Lisa: No, I don't. My home is in the country.

Martin: My home is in the city.

Lisa: Do you live in a house?

Martin: No, I live in an apartment.

Lisa: My home is west of here. I live in a big house.

Can you talk about your home? Listen to some sentences:

Martin: Do you live in the city?

Emily: No, I don't. My home is in the country.

Martin: Do you live in a house?

Emily: Yes, I do.

Lisa: Do you live in the country?

Martin: No, I don't. I live in the city.

Lisa: Do you live in a house?

Martin: No, I don't. I live in an apartment.

Now, please answer the following questions using short answers and answering where you live if your answer is "No, I don't":

Martin: Do you live in the city?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't. I live in a country/town.)

Martin: Do you live in a house?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't. I live in an apartment.)

Lisa: Hi, Wilt. This is Martin.

Martin: We've met. Wilt, where is your house?

Wilt: It's south of here.

Martin: May I visit your farm?

Wilt: Of course. Can you come on Monday?

Martin: No, I can't.

Wilt: Can you come on Tuesday?

Martin: Yes. I want to ask you some questions on Tuesday.

Wilt: OK. Goodbye.

Lisa: Goodbye, Wilt. Hi, Eric. This is Martin.

Eric: Hi. I'm Eric Jankusky.

Martin: Are you Lisa's husband?

Eric: Yes, I am.

Martin: Are you a farmer?

Eric: Yes, I am. All these men are farmers.

In the second part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner visits a farm and talks about farming. You will learn to answer questions about where you live and about things you can do.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 17, Part 2.

Wilt: Here we are. This is our home. Come inside the house. Emily!?

Emily: Good morning.

Martin: Good morning. How are you today?

Emily: Fine thanks.

Martin: You have an interesting house.

Emily: Thank you. It's old.

Wilt: It's about one hundred years old.

Emily: It's a wonderful home.

Martin: Do you have a big farm?

Wilt: Yes, it's very big.

Martin: Who does all the work?

Emily: He does.

Wilt: No, I don't. She works too.

Martin: Who makes the garden?

Wilt: She does.

Martin: What do you grow?

Emily: Now, I have onions and peas ([pi:] - горох).

Wilt: She has beans ([bi:n] - бобы, фасоль) and squash ([skwɒʃ] - кабачок).

Emily: I'm going to have tomatoes and potatoes.

Wilt: And she's going to have corn ([kɔ:(r)n] - кукуруза) too. Come see the farm.

Martin: Do you have two tractors (['træktə(r)] - трактор)?

Wilt:Yes, we do. We have a big tractor and a small tractor.

Martin: Do you have animals?

Wilt: We only have horses.

Emily: We ride the horses. Can you see the horses?

Martin: Yes, I can.

Emily: We ride over the farm. Can you ride?

Martin: No, I can't.

Wilt: Yes, you can. Come see the horses.

Wilt: You can ride this old horse.

Martin: OK.

Wilt: We're going to ride over there. Can you ride there?

Martin: Maybe.

Wilt: We can ride slowly.

Martin: OK.

In English, we ask about a person's skill or ability with the question word "Can." It is followed by a subject (['sʌbdʒikt] - подлежащее) and then a predicate (['predikət] - сказуемое). Listen to these questions and answers:

Emily: Can you see the horses?

Martin: Yes, I can.

Emily: Can you ride?

Martin: No, I can't.

Wilt: Yes, you can. You can ride this old horse. We can ride slowly.

Now, can you answer some simple questions (short answers)?

Emily: Can you ride?

You: (Yes, I can/No, I can't.)

Martin: Can you drive?

You: (Yes, I can/No, I can't.)

Emily: Can you cook?

You: (Yes, I can/No, I can't.)

Martin: Can you write?

You: (Yes, I can/No, I can't.)

Martin: I see corn. What other things do you grow?

Wilt: I grow wheat ([wi:t] - пшеница) too. Look there. I grew wheat there last year.

Martin: Let's ride there.

Wilt: Can you ride there?

Martin: Yes, I can. I want to ask more questions.

Martin: What's this?

Wilt: It's soybeans (['sɔibinz] - соя). Let's ride south of here.

Martin: Can we stop here? It's wonderful!

Wilt: Look to the west. That's the river.

Martin: Yes, I can see the river.

Wilt: Now look to the north. Can you see the town?

Martin: Yes, I can. Is that your farm?

Wilt: No. My farm stops at the river. That farm is Les Danzig's farm. He has a small farm.

Martin: I can't see a house.

Wilt: No, you can't. His home is in town. Can you see my house?

Martin: Yes, I can.

Wilt: Let's ride there.

Can you answer questions about your home?

Martin: Is your home in the city?

You: (Yes, It is/No, It isn't. My home is in the town/country.)

Martin: Do you live in an apartment?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I dont't. I live in a house.)

Martin: You have a wonderful farm. It's very interesting.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

discuss - обсуждать ([dis'kʌs])
drug - лекарство, наркотик ([drʌg])
instrument - инструмент (['instrəmənt])
urgent - срочный (['ε:(r)dʒənt])
argument - спор, аргумент (['a:(r)gjʊmənt])
disadvantage - недостаток ([disəd'va:ntidʒ])
bully - хулиган, запугивать, задирать (['bʊli])
argue - спорить, аргумитировать (['a:(r)gju:])
advantage - преимущество ([əd'va:ntidʒ])
blind - слепой ([blaind])
tool - инструмент ([tu:l])
cope - справиться ([kəʊp])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

complaint - жалоба, недовольствие ([kəm'pleint])
definite - определенный, точный (['definət])
skill - навык, умение ([skil])
exist - существовать ([ig'zist])
helpful - полезный ([helpfl])
depress - угнетать, подавлять ([di'press])
ability - способность ([ə'biləti])
prefer - предпочитать ([pri'fε:(r)])
male - самец, мужской ([meil])
university - университет ([ju:ni'vε:(r)səti])
female - самка, женский (['fi:meil])

The new verbs of this lesson are exist, depress и prefer. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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