English for All

Lesson 85: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: About a boy (chapter 5)
  • Lesson 16 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

advantage1 [əd'va:ntidʒ] - преимущество
bully2 ['bʊli] - хулиган, задира, запугивать, задирать
drug3 [drʌg] - лекарство, наркотик
instrument4 ['instrəmənt] - инструмент
tool4 [tu:l] - инструмент
argue5 ['a:(r)gju:] - спорить, аргументировать
cope6 [kəʊp] - справиться
discuss7 [dis'kʌs] - обсуждать
blind8 [blaind] - слепой
urgent8 ['ε:(r)dʒənt] - срочный

1 - существительное advantage значит какое-либо "приемущество", то есть обстоятельство, которое ставит объект в более лучшее положение. Часто можно встретить выражение at an advantage - "в преимуществе":

This new car puts him at an advantage over other racers. - Эта новая машина ставит его в преимущество над другими гонщиками.

От него образуется противоположное по смыслу существительное disadvantage ([disəd'va:ntidʒ] - недостаток ), более точный перевод которого является "невыгодное положение". С ним также можно встретить выражение at a disadvantage - "в невыгодном положение".

Как и с многими другими словами, американские носители не произносят длинный звук [a:] в словах advantage и disadvantage, заменяя его на более сложный для нас звук [æ]: [əd'væntidʒ] и [disəd'væntidʒ]

2 - существительное bully берет свое значение от глагола "запугивать, задирать", то есть это человек, который старается нанести вред (моральный или физический) более слабым.

3 - удивительно как в английском языке одно существительное drug может нести в себе два таких непохожих значения: "лекарство" и "наркотик". И не думайте, что это только какой-то конкретный тип лекарств. Это относится к любым лекарствам. Для примера посмотрите на образованное от него слово drugstore - "аптека".

4 - существительные instrument и tool могут взаимозаменяться во многих ситуациях. Это инструмент для ремонта, сада, медицины и другое. Но instrument применятся в более широком смысле: измерительный (высота, давление, температура), музыкальный (скрипка, гитара). Tool, как правило, относится для устройств, которые держатся в одной руке.

5 - глагол argue переводится наиболее часто как "спорить", но имеет также значение "аргументировать" (близок по значению к глаголу prove). После этого глагола в значение "спорить" часто встречаются предлоги about/with в значение "о чем/с кем спорить":

I argued about our plans with my girlfriend. - Я спорил о наших планах с моей девушкой.

От глагола argue образуется существительное argument (['a:(r)gjʊmənt] ) с помощью суффикса -ment, которое также имеет два значения: "спор" - обмен противоположными мнениями (часто в сердитой манере), "аргумент" - причина в поддержку чего-либо или математический символ. С argument часто можно встретить те же предлоги, что и с глаголом argue:

I had an argument about our plans with my girlfriend. - Я имел спор о наших планах с моей девушкой.

6 - глагол cope часто взаимозаменим с одним из значений глагола manage. С ним также часто встречается предлог with:

He couldn't cope with his current work. - Он не мог справиться с его текущей работой.

7 - глагол discuss буквально означает to talk about, поэтому когда говорится "о чем" идет разговор, после него не ставится предлога about:

We discussed our new neighbours with my wife. - Мы обсуждали наших новых соседей с моей женой.

8 - как и от многих других прилагательных, от blind и urgent образуются наречия blindly и urgently (в данном случае образа действия) с помощью суффикса -ly:

He blindly accepted the offer. - Он слепо принял предложение.
He urgently demanded to change his order. - Он срочно потребовал заменить его блюдо.

Look at these new words in sentences:

It's your advantage to have so many instruments.
Это твое преимущество иметь так много инструментов.
He blindly argued though all arguments were against it.
Он слепо спорил, хотя все аргументы были против этого.
The ship carries urgent drugs for African children.
Корабль везет срочные лекарства для африканских детей.
Even a woman can cope with this tool.
Даже женщина может справиться с этим инструментом.
The teacher offered to discuss the argument of these students.
Учитель предложил обсудить спор этих студентов.
This bully always has some drug with him.
Этот задира всегда имеет какой-то наркотик с собой.
Let's discuss the advantage of these instruments.
Давай обсудим преимущества этих инструментов.
I think this man is blind because he walks with a stick in front of him.
Я думаю, что этот человек слепой, потому что он ходит с палкой перед собой.
Do these guys bully you?
Эти парни запугивают тебя?
They couldn't argue more.
Они не могли спорить больше.
He had to urgently go to his blind grandmother to help her to cope with her difficulties.
Он должен был срочно пойти к своей слепой бабушке, чтобы помочь ей справиться с ее трудностями.
You are at a disadvantage because of the drugs which you sell behind the school.
Ты в невыгодном положение из-за наркотиков, которые ты продаешь за школой.
All tools were in a garage.
Все инструменты были в гараже.
It was a blind chance that he got such an advantage.
Это был слепой шанс, что он получил такое преимущество.
He can win this argument only by bullying you.
Он может победить этот спор только запугивая тебя.
The government was discussing the problems of the blind in the morning.
Правительство обсуждали проблемы слепых утром.
This wise man can turn any awful disadvantage into the great advantage.
Этот мудрый человек может превратить любой ужасный недостаток в огромное преимущество.
The invited musician plays a lot of musical instruments.
Приглашенный музыкант играет на многих музыкальных инструментах.
The doctor tries to give the best drug to every patient.
Доктор старается дать лучшее лекарство каждому пациенту.
All arguments were heard.
Все аргументы были услышаны.
She blindly signed all papers.
Она слепо подписала все бумаги.

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: About a boy (chapter 5)

Chapter 5: New Trainers

Marcus knew that he couldn't make Will go out with his mum if Will didn't want to. But he knew Will's secret now, so perhaps he could make him do something else. He started going round to Will's flat after school.

The first time, Will wasn't very pleased to see him. He stood in the doorway and didn't invite Marcus in.

"What?"

"I just thought I'd come round. What are you doing?"

"Watching Countdown!" Marcus knew about Countdown - the most boring programme in the history of television. But he wanted to get inside Will's flat.

"I could watch it with you if you want. I really like it."

Will looked at him for a time. "All right. Come in."

There were lots of interesting things in Will's flat - hundreds of CDs, records and cassettes. There were pictures from films on the wall, and black and white photos of people with musical instruments.

"Who are these people? And why are they on your wall?"

"They're musicians. And they're on my wall because I like their music and they're cool."

"Why are they cool?"

"I don't know. Because they took drugs and died, probably."

Marcus thought he wouldn't want pictures on his wall of people who took drugs and died. He'd want to forget all about that kind of thing, not look at it every day of his life.

Will made tea in the kitchen. Then they went back into the living room and sat down on the sofa.

"Do you like school?" Will asked.

"No. I hate it"

"Why? Do the other kids bully you?"

Marcus looked at him. How did he know that? "Not really. Just a couple of kids."

"What do they do to you?"

"Nothing really. Just, you know, say things about my hair and glasses. And my singing. Sometimes... I sing without noticing."

Will laughed.

"It's not funny."

"I'm sorry. But you could do something about your hair. You could have it cut in the way you want it."

"This is how I want it."

"Why do you want your hair like that?"

"Because that's how it grows, and I hate going to the hairdresser."

"I can see that. How often do you go"

"Never. My mum cuts it."

"Your mum? How old are you? Twelve? You're old enough to get your hair cut yourself. You could get married in four years' time. Will you let your mum cut your hair then?"

Marcus didn't think he'd be married in four years' time, but he understood what Will was telling him and knew that Will was right. But there was another way of looking at the situation. If his mum was going to cut his hair in four years' time, then she would still be alive.

Marcus visited Will a lot that autumn, and by about the third or fourth visit he felt that Will was getting used to him. They didn't talk about much at first, but one day Will said, "How's the situation at home?" for no reason that Marcus could understand.

"You mean my mum?"

"Yes."

"She's all right, thanks."

Marcus had never talked about it, and he'd never said how he felt. But what he felt, all the time, every day, was a horrible fear.

This was the main reason why he came round to Will's after school. Every time he climbed the stairs at home he remembered the Dead Duck Day.

When he saw his mum watching the news or eating or preparing work on the dining table, he wanted to cry, or be sick or something. But he couldn't talk about it.

"Are you still worried about her?"

"A bit when I think about it."

"How often do you think about it?"

"I don't know." He thought about it all the time, all the time, all the time. Could he say that to Will? He didn't know. He couldn't say it to his mum, or to his dad, or to Suzie. They would all be too worried about him. He just wanted a promise from someone, anyone, that it wouldn't happen again, ever, and no one could do that.

Will was wishing that he hadn't asked Marcus about Fiona because it was clear that the boy was very upset. Will wasn't used to coping with people with real-life problems. He liked watching people's problems on TV, but he'd never had anyone with problems on his sofa before.

Sometimes they managed conversations about other things, like Marcus's dad.

"Do you see your dad often?"

"Quite often. Some weekends. He's got a girlfriend called Lindsey. She's nice."

"Would you like to see him more than you do?"

"No."

"Well, that's all right then."

The next week, while Will was watching Countdown as usual, he was interrupted by a long, urgent ring on the doorbell. He got up off the sofa and opened the door. Marcus was standing on the doorstep, and two ugly-looking boys were throwing hard sweets at him. Some sweets hit Will.

"What do you think you're doing?" He couldn't remember the last time he had been so angry.

The boys ran away and Will went back into the flat. Marcus was sitting on the sofa watching Countdown.

"Who were they?"

"I don't know their names," said Marcus, his eyes on the TV "They're in the class two years above me at school."

"Marcus, does this happen often?"

"Well, they've never thrown sweets at me before."

"I'm not talking about the sweets. I'm talking about older kids bullying you."

"Oh, yes. Not those two"

"No, OK, not those two. But others like them."

"Yes. Lots."

"Right. That's what I've been trying to find out. Your problem is, Marcus, that you look different from other kids. That's why they notice you. You need to look more like them. You need the same clothes and haircut and glasses as everyone else. You can be as weird as you want on the inside. Just do something about the outside."

Will took Marcus shopping in Holloway Road and bought him a pair of expensive Adidas trainers. Marcus thought they were cool, and Will was pleased. He couldn't remember feeling as good as this before. He had made an unhappy boy happy, and there hadn't been any advantage in it for him at all. He didn't even want to sleep with the boy's mother.

But the next day Marcus's new trainers were stolen. He came home from school wearing only a pair of black socks.

"Where are your shoes?" Fiona screamed. She hadn't noticed that he had been wearing new trainers.

"Stolen."

"Stolen? Why would anyone want to steal your shoes?"

"Because..." He was going to have to tell her the truth, although he knew the truth would lead to a lot of questions.

"Because they were nice ones. They were new Adidas trainers. Will bought them for me."

"Will who? Will, the guy who took us to lunch?"

"Yes. The guy from SPAT. He's become my friend."

"He's become your friend?"

Marcus was right - his mum had lots of questions, but she asked them in a very boring way. She just repeated the last thing he said, made it into a question and shouted.

"I go round to his flat after school."

"YOU GO ROUND TO HIS FLAT AFTER SCHOOL?"

"Well, you see, he doesn't really have a kid."

"HE DOESN'T REALLY HAVE A KID?"

When the questions had finished, he was in a lot of trouble, although probably not as much trouble as Will. Marcus put his old shoes back on, and then he and his mother went straight to Will's flat. Will opened the door and Fiona immediately started shouting at him about SPAT and his imaginary son. At first Will looked embarrassed - he had no answers to her questions, so he stood there staring at the floor. But as it continued, he started to get angry too.

"Why do you invite twelve-year-old boys round to tea-parties in your flat after school?" asked Fiona.

Will looked at her. "Are you suggesting what I think you're suggesting?" He went red in the face and started shouting very loudly. "Your son invites himself round here. Sometimes he's followed by other kids who attack him. I could leave him outside, but I let him in for his own safety. I won't do it again. Now, if you've finished, you can both get out of here."

"I haven't finished yet, actually. Why did you buy him a pair of expensive trainers?"

"Because... because look at him."

"What's wrong with him?"

Will looked at her. "You really don't know, do you? Marcus is being eaten alive at school by the other kids. He gets bullied every day."

"Marcus is doing fine," his mother said.

Marcus couldn't believe she'd said that. He wasn't doing fine; his mum was being blind and stupid and crazy.

"You're joking," said Will.

"I know he's taking some time to get used to his new school, but..."

Will laughed. "Oh, yes. And after a couple of weeks, he'll be OK? When they've stopped stealing his shoes and following him home from school, everything will be great."

That was wrong. They were all mad. "I don't think so," said Marcus. "It's going to take more than a couple of weeks."

"It's OK, I know," said Will. "I was joking."

Marcus didn't think there was much to joke about in the situation. But he was very pleased that Will understood what was happening to him at school. He'd only known Will for a short time, and he'd known his mother all his life. So why could Will understand, and his mother couldn't? But now his mother understood too, because Will had told her.

"You're not going to Will's again," Fiona said to Marcus on the bus on the way home. "If you've got anything to say, you say it to me. If you need new clothes, I'll get them.

"But you don't know what I need. I don't know what I need. Only Will knows. He knows what kids wear."

"We don't need that kind of person. We're doing all right our way. Marcus, I've been your mother for twelve years. I do know what I'm doing."

Marcus didn't think either of them was doing all right. He wondered if his mother had a kind of plan for him. In the next few days, he began to notice the way she talked to him. He was interested in everything she said about what he should watch on TV or listen to or read or eat.

She had always said it was important to talk about things, and that she wanted him to think for himself.

They had often discussed what was bad about fashion and modern pop music and computer games. But if she didn't like what he said, she argued with him until he agreed with her. But he hadn't agreed, really; he'd just lost the argument.

"I've been thinking for myself," he said "And I want to go round to Will's flat after school."

"No. He's a rich guy who doesn't work, who tells lies, and who..."

"He understands about school. He bought me those trainers. He knows things." He was getting annoyed. "I'm thinking for myself and... it doesn't work. You always win."

"Marcus, it's not enough to tell me you're thinking for yourself. You've got to show me too. Give me a good reason why you want to go round to Will's."

Marcus gave her a reason. It wasn't the right reason, and he felt bad saying it because it made her cry. But it was a good reason and he won the argument.

"Because I need a father."



CD [ci: di:] - Си Ди
cassette [kə'set] -
кассета



























hairdresser ['heə(r)dresə(r)] -
парикмахер
















































interrupt [intə'rʌpt] -
прерывать
doorstep - порог





















haircut ['heə(r)kʌt] -
стрижка
Adidas ['ædidæs] -
Адидас
trainers - зд. кроссовки





























imaginary [i'mædʒinəri] -
воображаемый


















































pop [pɒp] -
поп
_______________________________________________

Lesson 16 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner interviews a young musician. They talk about homes, especially apartments. You will learn to ask about people's homes.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 16, Part 1:

Martin: Thank you. Thank you very much. That was wonderful.

Musician: You're welcome. Do you like the violin ([vaiə'lin] - скрипка)?

Martin: I love the violin.

Musician: Would you like some coffee or tea?

Martin: No, thanks. I want to ask you some questions.

Musician: OK.

Martin: You're a young musician. How old are you?

Musician: I'm twenty-one years old.

Martin: Do you have a family?

Musician: I have a family in Finland (['finlənd] - Финляндия). I don't have a family here.

Martin: Do you work? Do you have a job?

Musician: I'm a musician. I don't work now. I'm a student.

Martin: Do you study at the university ([ju:ni'vε:(r)səti] -университет)?

Musician: Yes, I do.

Martin: Do you practice at the university?

Musician: Yes. I practice at home too.

Martin: Where do you live?

Musician: I live here. This is my home. Where do you live?

Martin: I live in Baltimore (['bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)] - Балтимор).

Musician: Do you live in an apartment?

Martin: Yes, I do.

Musician: This apartment is very small.

Martin: I live in a small apartment too. It's my home.

Musician: I live in a big house in Finland. But this is my home here.

Martin: Did you play the violin in Finland?

Musician: Oh, yes, I did. I played for many years.

Martin: Where did you play?

Musician: I played at school. And I played at home. My mother played the violin.

Martin: Did you play another musical instrument?

Musician: First, I played the piano ([pi'ænəʊ] - пианино). My father played the piano.

Martin: Do you play the piano now?

Musician: No, I don't. I don't study. I don't practice the piano now.

Martin: When did you play the piano?

Musician: When I lived in Finland.

Martin: How long did you play?

Musician: Ten years.

Musician: Excuse me. Hello, Manny. Come in.

Manny: Hi.

Martin: Hello, I'm Martin Learner. How are you?

Manny: Hi, I'm Manny.

Musician: Mr. Learner is a reporter. Manny is my friend.

Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

Manny: Thanks.

Martin: Where is your home?

Manny: Here.

Martin: You live here in this apartment?

Manny: No, no. I don't live in this apartment. I live here in Bloomington (['blu:miŋtən] - Блумингтон). My home is in Bloomington.

Musician: My home is very small.

Manny: My home is very small too.

The word "home" means the place where you live now. It may be a house, or an apartment, or your parents' home, or any place you live. Listen to some sentences again:

Martin: Where do you live?

Musician: I live here. This is my home.

Martin: Where do you live?

Manny: I live in Bloomington. My home is in Bloomington.

Musician: Where do you live?

Martin: I live in an apartment.

Try to answer the question (I live in ... (building). My home is in ... (city)):

Martin: Where do you live?

You: (I live in AN APARTMENT/A HOUSE. My home is in YOUR CITY)

In the next part of the English USA lesson, Martin Learner visits with two young musicians in the apartment of one of them. They talk about their work, their studies, and what kind of homes they live in.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 16, Part 2:

Martin: Manny, where do you live in Bloomington?

Manny: I live at five twenty-six Hamilton Street.

Martin: Do you live in a house?

Manny: No, I don't.

Martin: Do you live in a dormitory (['dɔ:(r)mitəri] - общежития)?

Manny: No, I don't.

Martin: Do you live in an apartment?

Manny: Yes, I do. It's very small.

Martin: How many rooms does it have?

Manny: It has one large room and one very small room.

Listen to some examples of how to ask what kind of home someone has:

Martin: Do you live in a house?

Manny: No, I don't.

Martin: Do you live in a dormitory?

Manny: No, I don't.

Martin: Do you live in an apartment?

Manny: Yes, I do.

Martin: Do you live in an apartment?

Musician: Yes, I do.

Martin: Did you live in a house?

Musician: Yes, I lived in a house in Finland.

Now you answer the questions using short answers (remember our previous lessons):

Martin: Do you live in a house?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't)

Martin: Do you live in a dormitory?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't)

Martin: Do you live in an apartment?

You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't)

Martin: That was beautiful.

Manny: He's very good.

Musician: Thanks.

Martin: Manny, what do you do?

Manny: I'm a musician too.

Martin: Are you a student?

Manny: Yes, I am. I study at the university.

Martin: Do you play the violin?

Manny: No, I don't.

Musician: Yes, he does.

Manny: No, I don't.

Musician: Yes, he does. But he's very bad.

Manny: Yes, I'm very bad.

Martin: Where are you from?

Manny: I'm from Brooklyn (['brʊkəlin] - Бруклин). My family is from Russia. It was their home.

Martin: Did you live in Russia?

Manny: No, I didn't. My home was in Brooklyn.

We sometimes use the word "home" to mean the place we came from originally. Listen to these sentences:

Manny: They lived in Russia. It was their home.

Martin: Where are you from?

Manny: I'm from Brooklyn. It was my home. I live in Bloomington now.

Musician: I'm from Finland. It was my home. I live in Bloomington too.

Manny: Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Chicago ([ʃi'ka:gəʊ] - Чикаго). It was my home. I live in Baltimore now.

Martin: Did you play the violin in Brooklyn?

Manny: Yes. I was very bad.

Martin: What do you play now?

Manny: I play the clarinet (['klærinət] - кларнет).

Martin: Did your father play the clarinet?

Manny: No, he didn't. He was a chemist (['kemist] - аптекарь, химик).

Martin: Did your mother play the clarinet?

Manny: No, she didn't. But she was a musician. She was a singer.

Martin: Do you play another musical instrument?

Manny: Yes, I do. I play the guitar ([gi'ta:(r)] - гитара).

Musician: He plays the mandolin ([mændə'lin] - мандолина) too.

Musician: Excuse me. Teresa! Hi.

Theresa: Hi.

Musician: This is Teresa.

Manny: Hi, Teresa.

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin. Are you a musician?

Theresa: No. I'm a teacher.

Musician: She teaches at the high school.

Martin: Do you live in Bloomington?

Theresa: Yes, I do.

Musician: She lives in the apartment downstairs.

Theresa: Manny, do you have your guitar?

Manny: Yes, I do.

Theresa: Play for us.

Manny: OK.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

politics - политика (['pɒlətiks])
explanation - объяснение ([eksplə'neiʃn])
imagine - воображать, придумывать себе ([i'mædʒin])
mum - мама ([mʌm])
grateful - благодарный ([greitfl])
mood - настроение ([mu:d])
private - частный, личный (['praivət])
generous - щедрый, благородный (['dʒenərəs])
intend - намереваться ([in'tend])
fortunate - удачливый, счастливый (['fɔ:(r)tʃənə(t)])
murder - убийство (['mε:(r)də(r)])
unfortunate - неудачливый, несчастливый ([ʌn'fɔ:(r)tʃənə(t)])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

bully - хулиган, запугивать, задирать (['bʊli])
cope - справиться ([kəʊp])
instrument - инструмент (['instrəmənt])
urgent - срочный (['ε:(r)dʒənt])
argument - спор, аргумент (['a:(r)gjʊmənt])
blind - слепой ([blaind])
drug - лекарство, наркотик ([drʌg])
argue - спорить, аргумитировать (['a:(r)gju:])
advantage - преимущество ([əd'va:ntidʒ])
tool - инструмент ([tu:l])
discuss - обсуждать ([dis'kʌs])
disadvantage - недостаток ([disəd'va:ntidʒ])

The new verbs of this lesson are argue, bully, cope and discuss. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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