English for All

Lesson 84: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: About a boy (chapter 4)
  • Lesson 15 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

explanation1 [eksplə'neiʃn] - объяснение
mood [mu:d] - настроение
mum2 [mʌm] - мама
murder3 ['mε:(r)də(r)] - убийство, убивать
politics4 ['pɒlətiks] - политика
imagine [i'mædʒin] - воображать, придумывать себе
intend [in'tend] - намереваться
fortunate5 ['fɔ:(r)tʃənət] - удачливый, счастливый
generous6 ['dʒenərəs] - щедрый, благородный
grateful7 [greitfl] - благодарный
private8 ['praivət] - частный, личный

1 - существительное explanation образуется от глагола explain с помощью суффикса -tion. У вас может возникнуть вопрос, почему же существительное не пишется как "explaination". Дело в том, что исходное написание глагола "explane", и со временем оно изменилось в текущее. Существительное же не получило дополнительную "i" в написание. Здесь первый звук [e] в отличие от глагола, где он произносится [i], как во многих других случаях, когда начльная буква e стоит перед x в безударном положение - example, exactly, excite, except, exclude, expect, expensive, explore, extreme, experience, excuse.

2 - существительное mum значит то же самое, что и mother, но в более нежной манере. В разных английских диалектах оно пишется и звучит по разному:

  • Англичане произносят его стандартно: mum [mʌm];

  • Жители USA пишут и произносят: mom [ma:m];

  • Жители Ирландии, Уэльса и северных частей UK пишут и произносят: mam [mæm]. Но будьте внимательны, для жителей USA mam - это вежливое обращение к любой женщине.

3 - слово murder очень похоже на изученное ранее слово kill (также может быть существительным "убийство"). Во многих ситуация они взаимозаменяются, но kill используется в более широком смысле. Murder - это "убийство" с резко негативным оттенком, когда происходит нарушение закона с юридической или моральной стороны. Сравните два предложения:

He kills animals to feed his family. - Он убивает животных, чтобы кормить свою семью.
He had murdered this man and took all his money. - Он убил этого человека и забрал все его деньги.

От существительного murder, как и от kill, образуется существительное murderer (убийца) с помощью суффикса -er.

4 - вы можете легко спутать два существительных politics и policy, так как на русском языке они произносятся совершенно одинаково: "политика", но их значение разное:

Policy - это скорее план, по которому (в соответствие с которым) ведет свою деятельность какая-либо группа: компания, партия, правительство.

Politics - это именно то, что относится к государству, то есть деятельность по управлению страной или более мелкой государственной структурой. И несмотря на окончание -s, politics стоит в единственном числе.

Посмотрите два примера:

Nobody likes the policy of our new chief. - Никому не нравится политика нашего нового начальника.
Our students study English politics in 1900. - Наши студенты изучают английскую политику в 1900 году (не то, каким образом происходило управление страной, а структура власти, ее тип, особенности).

5 - прилагательное fortunate очень распростанено в английском языке. Оно похоже на изученное ранее прилагательное lucky, но они имеют некоторое смысловое отличие. Однако его не всегда легко заметить. В общем, lucky применяется, когда событие происходит случайно, а fortunate применимо, когда прилагаются усилия к счастливому стечению обстоятельств:

I was lucky that the tree didn't fall on my house. - Я был удачливый, что дерево не упало на мой дом.
I was fortunate that my family got a new apartment. - Я был удачлив, что моя семья получила новую квартиру.

От этого прилагательного образуется прилагательное с противоположным смыслом unfortunate ([ʌn'fɔ:(r)tʃənət] - неудачливый, несчастливый ) с помощью префикса un- (их отличие с прилагательным unlucky точно такое же, как и с fortunate/lucky) и наречия fortunately/unfortunately (['fɔ:(r)tʃənətli] - к счастью/[ʌn'fɔ:(r)tʃənətli] - к несчастью), которые обрузуются с помощью суффикса -ly и префикса un-. Обычно они ставятся в начале предложения и отделяются запятой:

Fortunately/Unfortunately, he was at home. - К счастью/К несчастью, он был дома.

6 - прилатальное generous означает, что объект является щедрым в отношение денег, еды, помощи и другого. От него образуется наречие образа действия generously (['dʒenərəsli] - щедро, великодушно) с помощью суффикса -ly:

She generously shared her earned money with her best friends. - Она щедро делилась своими заработанными деньгами с ее лучшими друзьями.

7 - прилагательное grateful очень похоже на изученное ранее thankful, и пока вы можете считать их взаимозаменяемы. Но все таки, grateful предпочтительнее использовать по отношению к объектам, а thankful по отношению к случаю (действие или обстоятельство):

He was grateful to him for his gifts. - Он был благодарен ему за его подарки.
He was thankful that the road was free. - Я был благодарен, что дорога была свободна.

8 - прилагательное private полностью соответствует русскому "частный", то есть показывает, что объект является чей-то собственностью:

It is the private bus of our firm. - Это частный автобус нашей фирмы.

Look at these new words in sentences

I'm not in the mood to go to this private party.
Я в не настроение, чтобы идти на эту частную вечеринку.
Fortunately, he was generous enough.
К счастью, он был достаточно щедрым.
The grateful buyer intends to give more money.
Благодарный покупатель намеревается дать больше денег.
The murderer imagined that his actions were right.
Убийца вообразил, что его действия были правильными.
Unfortunately, the mood of people doesn't depend on your chosen policy.
К несчастью, настроение народа не зависит от твоей выбранной политики.
Our mum intended to take us to a private island for the summer holidays.
Наша мама собиралась взять нас на частный остров в течение летних каникул.
The detective was fortunate that the murderer gave the explanations of his actions so generously.
Детектив был удачлив, что убийца давал объяснения своих действий так щедро.
Children often imagine joyful things.
Дети часто воображают радостные вещи.
I don't like to watch politics on TV.
Мне не нравится смотреть политику по телевизору.
We were grateful to our mum for our childhood.
Мы были благодарны нашей маме за наше детство.
The private plane waited for us.
Частный самолет ждал нас.
Nobody could imagine such a horrible murder.
Никто не мог вообразить такое ужасное убийство.
This company intends to go into politics.
Эта компания намеревается пойти в политику.
The unfortunate mum stood near the broken plate.
Неудачливая мама стояла около разбитой тарелки.
Your mood will rise if you imagine something nice.
Твое настроение поднимется, если ты представишь что-нибудь хорошее.
This grateful man was very generous to the school in which he studied.
Этот благодарный человек был очень щедрым к школе, в которой он учился.
Does he have any explanation?
У него есть какое-либо объяснение?
The gardener had built a high fence around his private land.
Садовник построил высокий забор вокруг его частной земли.
Politics can spoil any mood.
Политика может испортить любое настроение.
Are you sure this man murdered all these people?
Ты уверен, что этот человек убил всех этих людей?

Now, you can continue reading the text.

Text: About a boy (chapter 4)

Chapter 4: Marcus's Plan

The next day Suzie took Marcus home and left him while she went to get Fiona from the hospital. He was just tidying the kitchen, as Suzie had told him to do when he saw a note on the kitchen table. He picked it up and sat down.

Dear Marcus, A big part of me knows that I'm doing a wrong, stupid, selfish, unkind thing. But unfortunately, that's not the part that has control of me now.

None of this is about you. I've loved being your mum, always, although I've found it difficult sometimes. And I don't know why it isn't enough for me, but it isn't. I just feel very tired, and there doesn't seem to be anything to look forward to.

Things will be better for you than they were before. Really. You can go to your dad's, or Suzie has always said she'd look after you.

Love you, Mum.

Marcus was still sitting at the kitchen table when his mum came back from the hospital with Suzie and Megan.

She could see immediately what he'd found.

"I'm sorry, Marcus. I'd forgotten about the note."

"You forgot? You forgot you wrote a letter about killing yourself?"

"Well, I didn't think I'd ever have to remember it, did I?" She laughed at that. She actually laughed. That was his mother. When she wasn't crying at breakfast, she was laughing about killing herself.

"It was stupid of me to leave Marcus here before I went to get you," said Suzie. "I wasn't thinking."

"Suzie, none of this is your fault. But maybe Marcus and I ought to have a little talk alone."

"Of course," said Suzie. She gave Marcus a kiss. "She's fine," she whispered, loud enough for his mum to hear. "Don't worry about her."

When Suzie had gone, Fiona made tea and sat down at the table with Marcus.

"Are you angry with me?"

"What do you think?"

"Because of the letter?"

"Because of the letter, because of what you did, everything."

"I can understand that. I don't feel the same as I did on Saturday if that's any help."

"So your problems have all just gone away?"

"No, but... at the moment I feel better."

"At the moment's no good to me," said Marcus. "I can see that you're better at the moment. You've just made tea. But what happens when I go back to school? I can't be here to watch you all the time."

"No, I know. But we've got to look after each other."

Marcus was no longer interested in what his mum said; the important thing was what she did, or what she was going to do.

She wasn't going to try and kill herself again today. She'd drink her tea, and tonight they'd watch TV, and it would feel like the beginning of a different, better time. But that time wouldn't last forever. Marcus knew that, for him, things would never be the same again.

Two people in a family weren't enough. He'd always thought that two was a good number, and that he'd hate to live in a family of three or four or five. But now he could see that if there were lots of people in a family, and one of them died, you wouldn't be left on your own. But how could he make his family grow? He was going to have to find a way.

***

Will kept thinking about Marcus and Fiona. There wasn't much else happening in his life, so he had a lot of time to think about them. He had a strange thought: perhaps he should try and help them. He telephoned Suzie.

"I was wondering how Marcus and Fiona are," he said.

"Not too bad, I think. She hasn't gone back to work, but Marcus went to school today."

"Listen, do you think there's any way I could help? Perhaps I could take Marcus out?"

"Would you like to?" said Suzie. "I could ask Fiona."

"Thanks," said Will. "And it would be nice to see you and Megan again soon."

"Yes," said Suzie. "I'm looking forward to meeting Ned."

Will bought Time Out, a magazine with information about events in London. He was looking for something that a twelve year - old boy might like to do on a Saturday. He tried to remember what he liked doing at Marcus's age, but he couldn't.

Then the telephone rang.

"Hi, Will. It's Marcus."

"Hi, Marcus."

"Suzie said you want to take me out for the day on Saturday. I'll come if my mum can come too."

"What?"

"I'll come if my mum can come too. And she hasn't got any money, so we'll either have to go somewhere cheap, or you'll have to pay for us."

"Well... wouldn't it be better with just you and me? Your mum could stay at home and have a rest."

Suddenly Will remembered last Saturday. They had left Fiona at home to rest, and she had tried to kill herself.

"I'm sorry, Marcus," he said quickly. "I wasn't thinking. Of course, your mum can come too. That would be great."

"We haven't got a car. You'll have to bring yours. And you can bring your little boy if you like."

He laughed. "Thanks."

"That's OK," said Marcus generously.

"He'll be with his mum again on Saturday."

"Fine. Come round at about half past twelve. You remember where we live. Flat 2, 31 Craysfield Road, Islington, London N1 2SF"

"Right," said Will. "See you then."

***

Marcus wasn't really worried about leaving his mum. She was still in a strange, calm mood. But he wanted her to come so that she and Will could meet, and after that, he thought, it should be easy.

His mum was pretty, and Will seemed quite rich. They could go and live with him and his kid, and then there would be four of them, and four was twice as good as two. Then if one of them died, it wouldn't matter so much.

Marcus wasn't even sure whether he liked Will or not, but it didn't matter. He could see that Will wasn't bad, or drunk, or violent, so he would be OK. And Marcus knew a little about Will. One day on his way home from school, he had seen Will out shopping and had followed him home like a private detective.

He hadn't really found out much about him except where he lived. But Will seemed to live alone - no girlfriend, no wife, no little boy. Perhaps the little boy was with his girlfriend at home? But if Will had a girlfriend, why was he trying to get friendly with Suzie? When Will arrived on Saturday, his mum was looking good, Marcus thought. She was wearing her best trousers and a hairy jumper, and she was wearing make-up for the first time since the hospital, and a pair of brightly coloured earrings from Zimbabwe.

"Thanks for everything you did last weekend," she said. "I'm very grateful."

"It was a pleasure. I hope you're feeling... I hope you've ..."

"My stomach's fine. I suppose I must still be a bit crazy though. That sort of thing doesn't get better quickly, does it?"

Will looked shocked, but she just laughed. Marcus hated it when she made jokes to people who didn't know her well.

Will took them to a restaurant called Twenty-Eight. After they had ordered their food, Marcus hoped that Will and his mum would start talking. But they seemed to be finding it difficult to start a conversation, so he had to help them.

"Don't just sit there," he said. "Talk to each other."

Both Will and Fiona looked at him.

"What do you want us to talk about?" asked Will.

"Anything. Politics. Films. Murders. I don't care."

"I'm not sure that's how conversation happens," said his mother.

Marcus started asking questions to make them talk, but he wasn't very successful.

"Leave us alone, Marcus. You're making it more difficult, not easier," said Fiona. "We'll start talking soon."

Then Will asked questions about Marcus's dad, and soon they were talking about relationships. They were talking so much that they didn't notice when the food arrived. Marcus ate his lunch happily. Would they move into Will's place, he wondered, or buy somewhere new?

***

Will knew that Fiona wasn't his type of woman. She didn't look the way he wanted women to look.

He didn't think looks were important to her at all. Why didn't she get a good haircut and wear nice clothes? And she was just too strange. He could see now why Marcus was so weird. She believed in things that Will didn't care about, like being a vegetarian.

Will still wanted to help them. One evening he was invited to supper at their flat. He didn't like the food very much - something vegetarian with peas and rice and tinned tomatoes - but he quite enjoyed the conversation. Fiona told him about her job as a music teacher and they talked about his dad's song. But later Fiona sat down at the piano and started to sing.

She wasn't a bad singer, but Will was very embarrassed. She sang old pop songs from the sixties, and she sang them with deep feeling; she even closed her eyes. Then Marcus began to sing too, in the same way, and they made Will sing with them. It was awful.

Will could see that he'd made a big mistake about Marcus and Fiona. He couldn't do anything to help people like them. They were too weird and they felt too deeply about things. Will didn't feel deeply about anything. He couldn't imagine wanting to kill himself. He just wanted to live a long life without any problems.

Fiona called Will and left a message on his answer machine, but he didn't call her back. He was trying to return to his old life.

He went shopping for CDs and clothes, he played a bit of tennis, he went to the pub and to see films with friends. Then, one afternoon, the doorbell rang. It was Marcus.

"I've come to see you," he said.

"Oh. Right. Come in."

Marcus marched into the sitting room, sat down on the sofa and looked round. "You haven't got a kid, have you?"

"Well..." began Will.

Marcus got up and walked around the flat. "Where's your toilet?" he asked.

"It's just down the hall."

When Marcus was gone, Will tried to think what he could say about Ned, but he couldn't think of anything.

"You've only got one bedroom," said Marcus when he got back. "You've got no children's toys in the bathroom, there are no toys in here... You haven't even got any photos of him."

"Is that your business?"

"No. But you've been lying to me, and my mum, and my mum's friend."

"Who told you where I live?"

"I followed you here once."

"Why don't you just go home, Marcus?"

"All right. But I'm going to tell my mum."

Will couldn't think of any explanation to give Marcus except the truth - that he had invented a child so he could join a single parents' group and meet women. And the truth sounded much worse than he had ever intended.

"Listen, Will," said Marcus. "I won't say anything to my mum if you go out with her."

"Why do you want your mum to go out with someone like me?"

"I don't think you're too bad. I mean, you told lies, but you seem OK. She's sad, and I think she'd like a boyfriend."

"Marcus, I can't go out with someone just because you want me to. I have to like the person too."

"What's wrong with her?"

"Nothing's wrong with her, but..."

"You want to go out with Suzie, don't you?"

"I don't want to talk about this with you."

"I thought so."

"I didn't say anything. I just said... Listen, I really don't want to talk about this with you. Go home."

"OK," said Marcus. "But I'll be back."

When Will had joined SPAT, he'd imagined entering the world of single mothers and their sweet children. He hadn't imagined Marcus, and he hadn't expected anyone to break into his world. He was one of life's visitors; he didn't want to be visited.
































London ['lʌndən] -
Лондон













































make-up - макияж
Zimbabwe [zim'ba:bwi] -
Зимбабве






























haircut ['heə(r)kʌt] -
стрижка
vegetarian [vedʒi'teəriən] -
вегетарианский
pea [pi:] -
горох
tin [tin] -
консервировать
piano [pi'ænəʊ] -
пианино
pop [pɒp] -
поп






CD [ci: di:] - Си Ди
tennis ['tenis] -
теннис





march [ma:(r)tʃ] -
маршировать
_______________________________________________

Lesson 15 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, Martin Learner visits with the mayor ([meiə(r)] - мэр) of a small town. They talk about where people work. You will learn to understand where various jobs take place.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 15, Part 1:

Martin: Good afternoon. I'm Martin Learner.

ASST: Good afternoon, Mr. Learner. I'm Mayor Walker's assistant ([ə'sistənt] - помощник). The Mayor is expecting you. Please go in.

Martin: Thank you.

Martin: Good afternoon, Mayor Walker.

Mayor: Hello. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

Mayor: Fine thanks. What can I do for you?

Martin: I'm a reporter. I want to talk about the work people do in this town.

Mayor: Fine.

Martin: How long have you been mayor of Greentown?

Mayor: Three years.

Martin: How many people live in Greentown?

Mayor: Thirteen thousand.

Martin: Let's talk about the work people do. What do they do?

Mayor: They work in small factories. They work in small businesses.

Martin: How many factories do you have?

Mayor: We have five small factories.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: Look at these pictures. See these people?

Martin: Yes.

Mayor: They work in the battery (['bætri] - батарея) factory. They make batteries.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They work in the tire ([taiər] - шина) factory. They make tires.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They work in the glass factory. They make windows and windshields (['windʃi:ldz] - лобовые стекла).

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They make bottles. And they make plastic bags. Come see the town.

Martin: Thank you. I'd like that.

Mayor: Do you see those people? They work on the roads and streets.

Martin: I see. How many teachers do you have?

Mayor: About one hundred. They teach in the schools. Look at that school.

Martin: Is it a new school?

Mayor: Yes, it is. Twenty teachers teach in that school.

Martin: Is that a hospital?

Mayor: Yes, it is. It's small. Twenty-three nurses work in the hospital.

We sometimes ask where certain work takes place. The answer includes a phrase that points the place of the work. Listen to examples:

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in small factories.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in small businesses.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in the battery factory.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in the tire factory.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in the glass factory.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work on the roads and streets.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: The teachers teach in that school.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: The nurses work in that hospital.

Can you ask the questions as Martin Learner did? The mayor will give you the answer. You begin:

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: They work in small factories.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: They work in small businesses.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: They work in the battery factory.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: They work in the tire factory.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: They work in the glass factory.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: They work on the roads and streets.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: The teachers teach in that school.

You: (Where do they work?)

Mayor: The nurses work in that hospital.

In the second part of the lesson you will learn more about where different jobs or activities ([æk'tivətiz] - деятельности) take place. Martin Learner is talking with the mayor of a small town during a Labor (['leibə(r) - труд) Day parade ([pə'reid] - парад).

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 15, Part 2:

Martin: Mayor Walker, how many small businesses do you have?

Mayor: About two hundred twenty. People work in stores and shops. They work in banks. They work in restaurants and bars. They work in the Post Office. They work in bakeries (['beikəriz] - пекарни).

Martin: What do they make in the bakeries?

Mayor: They bake ([beik] - выпекать) bread and cakes. Do you see that man there?

Martin: Yes.

Mayor: He's a writer.

Martin: Where does he write?

Mayor: He writes for the newspaper.

Martin: I see a photographer.

Mayor: Yes, she works for the newspaper.

Martin: Who are those women?

Mayor: They're workers.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work at the plastic factory.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They make plastic bags.

Martin: Who are those men?

Mayor: They're workers too.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work at the tire factory.

Martin: Who are they?

Mayor: They're students.

Martin: Where do they study?

Mayor: They study at the high school.

Martin: They're good musicians too! Who are those children?

Mayor: They're students too. They're going to sing.

Can you tell where people work or carry out other activities? Listen to some examples from Martin Learner and Mayor Walker:

Mayor: He's a writer.

Martin: Where does he write?

Mayor: He writes for the newspaper.

Mayor: They're workers.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work at the factory.

Mayor: She's a photographer.

Martin: Where does she work?

Mayor: She works for the newspaper.

Now you answer the questions:

Mayor: He's a writer.

Martin: Where does he write?

You: (He writes for the newspaper.)

Mayor: She's a photographer.

Martin: Where does she work?

You: (She works for the newspaper.)

Mayor: They're teachers.

Martin: Where do they teach?

You: (They teach in the school.)

Mayor: They're students.

Martin: Where do they study?

You: (They study at the high school.)

Mayor: They're nurses.

Martin: Where do they work?

You: (They work in the hospital.)

Mayor: Do you see those men?

Martin: Yes. Who are they?

Mayor: They're carpenters (['ka:(r)pintə(r)z] - столяры).

Martin: Oh, yes. I see.

Mayor: We have many carpenters.

Martin: Those men work on the roads and streets.

Mayor: Yes.

Martin: Who are those women?

Mayor: They're workers.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in the glass factory.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They make windows and windshields.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in the bottle factory.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They make bottles.

Martin: Where do they work?

Mayor: They work in the tire factory.

Martin: What do they make?

Mayor: They make tires. Where do you work?

Martin: I work at the Voice of America. Thank you for your time, Mayor Walker.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

pump - насос, качать ([pʌmp])
modern - современный (['mɒdə(r)n])
crazy - сумасшедший (['kreizi])
carpet - ковер (['ka:(r)pit])
enormous - огромный ([i'nɔ:(r)məs])
behave - вести себя ([bi'heiv])
ambulance - скорая помошь (['æmbjələns])
enjoyable - приятный, радостный ([in'dʒɔiəbl])
behaviour - поведение ([bi'heivjə(r)])
invent - изобретать, создавать ([in'vent])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

unfortunate - неудачливый, несчастливый ([ʌn'fɔ:(r)tʃənət])
explanation - объяснение ([eksplə'neiʃn])
intend - намереваться ([in'tend])
mum - мама ([mʌm])
grateful - благодарный ([greitfl])
private - частный, личный (['praivət])
politics - политика (['pɒlətiks])
fortunate - удачливый, счастливый (['fɔ:(r)tʃənət])
mood - настроение ([mu:d])
imagine - воображать, придумывать себе ([i'mædʒin])
murder - убийство (['mε:(r)də(r)])
generous - щедрый, благородный (['dʒenərəs])

The new verbs of this lesson are imagine, intend and murder. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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