English for All

Lesson 81: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: About a boy (chapter 1)
  • Lesson 12 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

pause [pɔ:z] - пауза, делать паузу
shallow1 ['ʃæləʊ] - мель, мелководье, мелкий
tidy2 ['taidi] - уборка, убирать
tiredness3 ['taiədnəs] - усталость
complicate ['kɒmplikeit] - усложнять
confuse4 [kən'fju:z] - путать, смущать
nervous ['nε:(r)vəs] - нервный
occasional4 [ə'keiʒnəl] - случайный
responsible3 [ri'spɒnsəbl] - ответственный
weird5 [wiə(r)d] - странный

1 - слово shallow чаще используется в качестве прилагательного, и означает, что объект неглубокий:

He took too shallow a* bowl for such a large quantity of sweets. - Он взял слишком мелкую чашу для такого большого количества сладостей.

* - если перед существительным с прилагательным стоит наречия степени too, so, as, то артикль ставится непосредственно перед существительным.

2 - кроме изученного ранее значения прилагательного, tidy может быть существительным и глаголом. В значение глагола оно близко к изученному ранее clean:

I tidied/cleaned the room. - Я убирал комнату.

3 - существительное tiredness образовано от прилагательного tired с помощью суффикса -ness.

От прилагательного responible образуются следующие слова:

  • Прилагательное irresponsible ([iri'spɒnsibəl] - безответственный, неответственный ) с помощью префикса ir-;

  • Существительное responsibility ([rispɒnsə'biləti] - ответственность ) с помощью суффикса -ty;

  • Существительное irresponsibility ([irispɒnsə'biləti] - безответственность) с помощью префикса ir и суффикса -ty.

После прилагательного responsible ставится предлог for, если говорится "за" что ответственен объект:

I was responsible for her test. - Я был ответственным за ее тест.

4 - глагол confuse не имеет ничего общего с изученным ранее глаголом embarrass. Confuse означает имеено "путать, сбивать" (смущать здесь скорее в переносном смысле). С этим глаголом вы можете встретить следующие предлоги:

  • Предлог with, если объект путается буквально "с" другим объектом:

  • I confused you with my brother. - Я перепутал тебя со своим братом.
  • Предлог about, если говорится что путает объект:

  • I was confused about what I should do next. - Я был запутан, что мне следует делать дальше.

5 - прилагательное occaisional придает существительному "случайный", "случающийся время от времени" характер.

6 - прилагательное wierd придает существительному "странный, непонятный" характер. То есть объект является каким-то сверхъестественным.

Look at these new words in sentences

Your irresponsibility led us to such an end.
Твоя безответственность привела нас к такому концу.
I feel some easy tiredness after the long Saturday tidy.
Я чувствую лекгую усталось после долгой субботней уборки.
The occaisional card confused me all the game.
Случайная карта спутала мне всю игру.
I was very nervous because of this wierd pause.
Я сильно нервничал из-за этой странной паузы.
These plates are too shallow for soup.
Эти тарелки слишком мелкие для супа.
This responsible child tidies every evening.
Этот ответственный ребенок уберается каждый вечер.
I paused the game for a little rest.
Я приостановил игру для небольшого отдыха.
The irresponsible chief likes to complicate simple things.
Безответственный начальник любит усложнять простые вещи.
The tourists hoped for an ocaisional rain.
Туристы надеялись на случайный дождь.
The wierd rock confused all the scientists.
Странный камень запутал всех ученых.
Do you have any responsibility?
У тебя есть какая-нибудь ответственность?
This confused part of river has a lot of shallows.
Эта запутанная часть реки имеет много отмелей.
The nervous boy looked forward their first meeting.
Нервный мальчик ждал с нетерпением их первой встречи.
Don't complicate our relationship.
Не усложняй наши отношения.
You made a lot of mistakes because of your tiredness.
Ты сделал много ошибок из-за своей усталости.
It was wierd that they stood in the rain.
Это было странно, что они стояли под дождем.
The pupils were confused by his examples.
Ученики были запутаны его примерами.
These were your most responsible actions in the life.
Это были твои самые ответственные действия в жизни.
The shallow pond is always warm.
Этот мелкий пруд всегда теплый.
Your tidy confused my things.
Твоя уборка запутала мои вещи.
We'll try to take an occaisional car.
Мы попытаемся взять случайную машину.

Now, we begin to study a new interesting text. This text has a British pronunciation (Британское произношение).

Text: About a boy (chapter 1)

Chapter 1: A Man and a Boy

Will could see only one reason for having children when you are old and poor then they could look after you.

Will Freeman was thirty-six years old and he had never had a job in his life. Sometimes he thought about working. He looked through the job advertisements in newspapers and wrote occasional letters to employers, but he was never invited to interviews.

He didn't mind. He was OK as he was. He was a cool guy with a cool lifestyle. He read quite a lot; he saw films in the afternoons; he went running; he cooked nice meals for himself and his friends. When he got bored, he went to Rome or New York or Barcelona for a few days.

Will didn't need to work for money because in 1938 his father had written a very successful Christmas song. Many famous singers had made recordings of this song, and each time Will's father had received royalties. Since his death the royalties had come to Will.

So Will had become rich without having to work at all. He was happy with his life. He lived in a nice flat in London and drove a fast car. He liked women and had lots of girlfriends, but he never got too involved with them. He preferred to look at other people's lives from the outside, like watching TV. If a relationship with a woman became complicated, he ended it. He wanted to keep his life simple.

In the evenings Will usually went out with friends. These were guys who worked in music shops or belonged to the same sports clubs as Will, or who were part of the same pub-quiz team. They weren't close friends - but they were good enough for a drink or a meal.

The evenings were fine, but Will had a lot of free time during the day because all his friends were at work. So he filled the time with different half-hour activities: reading the paper, having a bath, tidying his flat, going to the shops, watching Countdown.

Countdown was an afternoon TV quiz show and it was his favourite programme. Sometimes he wondered how his friends had time to work. How could a person work and have a bath on the same day? Will didn't like children. He wasn't interested in them, and he didn't want any responsibility for them. But his friends, John and Christine, had two. The second was a baby girl, born just the week before, and Will had been invited to see her.

When he arrived at John and Christine's flat, there were children's toys everywhere. Pieces of brightly coloured plastic were spread all over the floor, videos lay out of their cases near the TV, a white cloth over the sofa was covered with dirty brown marks ... How could people live like this? Christine came in holding the new baby while John was in the kitchen making tea. "This is Imogen," she said.

"Oh," said Will. "Right." He paused. What did people usually say about babies? "She's ..." he began, but stopped again. It was no good. He decided to ask Christine about herself instead. "How are you, Chris?" he asked.

"Well, you know. I'm rather tired."

"Why? A lot of parties?"

"No. I've just had a baby."

"Oh. Right."

John came into the room, carrying three cups of tea. "Barney's gone to his grandmother's today," he said, for no reason that Will could understand.

"How's Barney?" Barney was two, and interesting only to his parents, but Will knew he should ask John something.

"He's fine, thanks," said John. "He's still getting used to Imogen, but he's lovely." Will had met Barney before and knew that he wasn't lovely, but he decided not to say anything.

"What about you Will?"

"I'm fine, thanks."

"Don't you want your own family?"

I can't think of anything worse, thought Will. "Not yet," he said.

"We're worried about you," said Christine.

"I'm OK as I am, thanks," said Will.

"Maybe," said Christine, and smiled.

Will was beginning to feel very uncomfortable. Why did they want him to have children? Children would make him very unhappy. If John and Christine wanted children, and to be unhappy, that was fine. (Will was sure that John and Christine were very unhappy, even if they didn't realize it.) But why should they want him to be unhappy too? Will could see only one reason for having children. When you were old and poor, then they could look after you. But Will had plenty of money, so he didn't need toys on the floor or dirty sofas.

John and Christine used to be OK, he thought. Will and a girlfriend had gone out to nightclubs with them once or twice a week, and they had all had a lot of fun. But since John and Christine had had children, everything had changed. Will didn't want to meet Imogen or hear how Barney was. He didn't want to hear about Christine's tiredness. He decided not to visit them again.

"We were wondering," said John, "Whether you'd like to be Imogen's godfather?" The two of them looked at Will, smiling and waiting for his reply.

Will laughed nervously. "Godfather?" he said. "You mean ... church and things? Birthday presents? If you two are killed in an air crash, I'll have to look after her?"

"Yes."

"You're joking, aren't you?"

"No," said John "We always thought that deep down inside you're a very serious and responsible person."

"Oh, no," said Will quickly. "No, I'm not. I'm really a very shallow kind of person. Thank you very much for asking me, but I can't think of anything worse."

He didn't stay much longer.

***

Not far away, in the Holloway area of London, a twelve-year-old boy called Marcus was lying in bed, unable to sleep. He was worrying about his mum and his new school.

Marcus's mum was called Fiona, and she and Marcus had only been in London for a few weeks. They had moved there on the first day of the summer holidays because Fiona had got a new job. Before moving to London, they had lived in Cambridge, where Marcus's father, Clive, still lived. Fiona and Clive had separated four years ago.

Marcus thought London was quite boring. He and Fiona hadn't done much in the holidays. They'd been to see Home Alone 2, which wasn't as good as Home Alone 1. They'd been to have a look at his new school, which was big and horrible. And they'd had lots of talks about London and the changes in their lives. But really they were sitting around waiting for their London lives to begin.

Marcus had had two kinds of life. The first, which had ended when he was eight, was the normal, boring kind, with school and holidays and homework and weekend visits to grandparents. The second kind was more confused because there were more people and places in it: his mother's boyfriends and his dad's girlfriends; flats and houses; Cambridge and London. It was surprising how many things had changed when Fiona and Clive's relationship ended.

But Marcus didn't mind. Sometimes, he thought, he even preferred the second kind of life to the first. It was more exciting, more happened, and that was a good thing.

But now Marcus was very worried about his mum. She had started crying a lot in London - much more than in Cambridge.

He didn't know why she cried. He wondered if it was about boyfriends. Marcus didn't mind if his mum had a boyfriend. She was pretty, he thought, and nice, and funny sometimes. He wanted his mum to meet someone who would make her happy.

He couldn't help his mum with her problems, and she couldn't help him with his other big problem - school. His first day at his new London school had been a disaster.

Marcus knew that he was different from most other kids of his age. He wasn't right for schools. Not big secondary schools like the one in London. His schooling Cambridge hadn't been so bad.

The children there were younger, and there were lots of weird kids there, so Marcus hadn't felt uncomfortable.

It was OK not to be right for some things, he thought. He knew that he wasn't right for parties because he was very shy.

That wasn't a problem because he didn't have to go to parties.

But he had to go to school.

Marcus couldn't talk to his mum about his problems at school because she couldn't help. She couldn't move him to another school. Even if she did move him, it wouldn't make any difference. He'd still be himself, and that, it seemed to Marcus, was his real problem. The other kids laughed at him because he was weird. They laughed because he had the wrong trousers, the wrong shoes, and the wrong haircut.

Marcus knew that he was weird partly because his mum was weird. She was always telling him that clothes and hair weren't important. She didn't want him to watch "rubbish" TV or listen to "rubbish" music or play "rubbish" computer games. All the other kids spent their time doing these things, but Marcus had to argue with his mother for hours and he usually lost. She could explain why it was better for him to listen to singers from nineteen-sixties like Bob Marley and Joni Mitchell. And why it was more important to read books than to play on the Gameboy that his dad had given him.

He was quite happy at home, listening to Joni Mitchell or reading books, but it didn't do him any good at school. It made him different, and because he was different the other kids made him feel uncomfortable.

It wasn't all his mum's fault. Sometimes Marcus just did weird things. Like the singing. He always sang songs to himself inside his head but sometimes, when he was nervous, the song just came out of his mouth. It had happened in his English lesson on the first day of his new school. The teacher was reading and all the other students in the room were quiet. Suddenly, for no reason at all, Marcus had started to sing, and all the other kids had laughed at him.




advertisement [əd'vε:(r)tizmənt] -
объявление
employer [im'plɔiə(r)] -
работадатель
interview['intə(r)vju:] -
интервью
Rome [rəʊm] -
Рим
New York [nju: jɔ:(r)k] -
Нью Йорк
Barcelona [ba:(r)si'ləʊnə] -
Барселона
royalty ['rɔiəlti] -
отчисление


quiz[qwiz] -
опрос


activity [æk'tivəti] -
деятельность














































fun [fʌn] -
веселье

godfather ['gɒdfa:ðə(r)] -
крестный отец
















London ['lʌndən] -
Лондон
mum [mʌm] -
мама
Cambridge ['keimbridʒ] -
Кембридж

Home Alone -
Один Дома (изв. фильм)








prefer [pri'fε:(r)] -
предпочитать




funny ['fʌni] -
веселый






secondary ['secəndri] -
вторичный, дополнительный











haircut ['heə(r)kʌt] -
стрижка




Gameboy - игровая приставка






_______________________________________________

Lesson 12 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson you will learn to understand professions and the kind of work people do. Martin Learner is visiting a parent and teachers meeting at the school he visited recently.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 12, Part 1:

Mrs. W: Good evening, Mr. Learner. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

Mrs. W: Fine thanks. This is Mrs. Bane.

Mrs. B: Hello. I'm Robin's mother.

Mrs. W: Mr. Learner is a reporter.

Martin: Robin is making a picture book.

Mrs. W: That's right. Come see, Mrs. Bane.

Hal: Hello, Mr. Learner.

Martin: Hello. Call me Martin.

Hal: Martin, this is Wendy Silver. She's a teacher too.

Martin: Good evening.

Wendy: Hi. I teach third grade ([greid] -класс).

Hal: Martin visited my ROOM today.

Martin: Yes. I saw the geography ([dʒi'ɒgrəfi] - география) lesson.

Wendy: You're a reporter.

Martin: Yes, I write stories for the Voice of America. I'm writing a story about schools.

Hal: Martin, this is Mrs. Bane.

Mrs. B: We've met.

Hal: And this is Mr. Bane.

Martin: Hello.

Mr. B: Hello. You're a teacher?

Martin: No, I'm a reporter.

Mr. B: A reporter?

Martin: I'm writing a story about schools.

Mr. B: I see.

Martin: What do you do?

Mr. B: I'm a contractor ([kən'træctə(r)] - подрядчик). I build schools.

Martin: Wonderful.

Wendy: Martin, come meet Mrs. Steele.

Martin: Excuse me, Mr. Bane, Mrs. Bane.

Wendy: This is Jessica Steele.

Martin: Good evening. I'm Martin Learner.

Mrs. S: I'm happy to meet you.

Martin: What's that?

Mrs. S: It's a dress from Romania ([rə'meiniə] - Румыния). It was my grandmother's dress.

Wendy: Mrs. Steele is Roberta's mother.

Martin: Fifth grade geography?

Mrs. S: That's right.

Martin: What do you do, Mrs. Steele?

Mrs. S: I'm a housewife. I'm raising three Young children. I studied nursing ([nε:(r)siŋ] - медицинский уход).

Hal: Martin, this is Melissa's mother.

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner.

Mrs. R: Good evening. I'm Rachel Robertson.

Martin: I'm happy to meet you. This is Mrs. Steele, Roberta's mother.

Mrs. R: We've met, thank you.

Martin: What do you do, Mrs. Robertson.

Mrs. R: I'm a farmer.

Martin: A farmer!?

Mrs. R: Yes, I farm five-hundred acres ([eikərs] - акров).

Martin: Wonderful! What's that?

Mrs. R: Corn ([kɔ:(r)n] - кукуруза). Soybeans (['sɔibinz] - соя). And wheat ([wi:t] - пшеница). I grow them.

Wendy: Mrs. Robertson is Becky's mother too. Becky's in third grade.

Mrs. R: They are studying food.

Martin: I see.

Pat: Hello, I'm Pat Bryan. Who are you?

Martin: I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter.

Pat: Where are you from, Martin?

Martin: I'm from Baltimore ([bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)]). What do you do?

Pat: I'm a farmer. And I'm a mechanic ([mə'kænik] - механик) too. I farm a hundred acres. And I fix ([fiks] - чинить) tractors (['træktə(r)] - трактор).

Martin: What's that?

Pat: I have a boy in the third grade. It's beans ([bi:n] - бобы, фасоль).

Martin: Soybeans?

Pat: No. Red beans. I grow soybeans, red beans, and white beans. Last year I grew green beans and peas ([pi:] - горох).

People often talk about their work. They give it a name and tell what action they do. Listen to some sentences:

Hal: She's a teacher.

Wendy: I teach third grade. You're a reporter.

Martin: I write stories.

Mr. B: I'm a contractor. I build schools.

Mrs. S: I'm a housewife. I'm raising three young children.

Mrs. R: I'm a farmer. I grow corn, soybeans and wheat.

Can you tell someone what some of the people do? First, Martin will name their work, and then you tell what they do:

Martin: She's a teacher.

You: (She teaches third grade.)

Martin: He's a contractor.

You: (He builds schools.)

Martin: She's a farmer.

You: ( She grows corn, soybeans and wheat.)

Martin: I'm a reporter.

You: (You write stories.)

Mrs. W: This is Mr. Gary Durant.

Martin: Hello. How are you?

Gary: Fine thanks.

Mrs. W: Mr. Durant is the assistant principal ([ə'sistənt 'prinsipəl] - помощник директора). Mr. Learner, would you like some coffee?

Martin: Yes, please. Excuse me, Mr. Durant.

In the second part of the lesson, Martin Learner continues talking with the parents and teachers of the children he visited in school. They talk about the work they do.

This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 12, Part 2:

Martin: Black coffee, please.

Mrs. W: No sugar?

Martin: That's right. Thank you.

Mrs. W: Mr. McCammon. This is Martin Learner.

Mr. MC: Hello. I'm Malcolm McCammon. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks. How are you? What do you do?

Mr. MC: I'm Conrad's father.

Martin: What grade?

Mr. MC: Second grade. I'm a father and a lawyer ([lɔ:jə(r)] - адвокат).

Martin: Where are you from?

Mr. MC: I'm from Lawrence, Kansas ('kænzəs). I studied at the university ([ju:ni'vε:(r)səti] - университет) there. What do you do?

Martin: I'm a reporter for the Voice of America. I'm writing a story about schools.

Mrs. W: This is Glen Edwards.

Martin: Hello. How are you?

Glen: Fine thanks. How are you?

Martin: Fine thanks.

Glen: Are you a father?

Mr. MC: He's a reporter.

Martin: I'm a father too. What's that?

Glen: It's corn.

Mr. MC: It's red!

Glen: Yes. It's interesting.

Martin: Your child is in the third grade?

Glen: Yes, my son is in the third grade.

Martin: What do you do?

Glen: I'm a gardener. I grow red corn.

Mr. MC: He's a gardener. He's a banker too.

Martin: Is your son a gardener?

Glen: Yes. He grows carrots and onions. I grow corn, tomatoes, potatoes and squash ([skwɒʃ] - кабачок).

Martin: Mr. McCammon, are you a gardener?

Mr. MC: Oh, no. But I'm a cook.

Glen: Yes, he's a good cook.

Mr. MC: I don't cook red corn! I cook yellow corn and white corn but I don't cook red corn.

Mrs. W: Mr. Learner. Come meet Miss Frazetta. Tobi, this is Martin Learner.

TOBI: Good evening. Are you a teacher?

Martin: No, I'm a reporter.

TOBI: That's interesting. I'm a reporter too.

Martin: I write stories for radio.

TOBI: I write for the newspaper. Are you a parent?

Martin: Yes, but my children are in Baltimore.

TOBI: Are you from Baltimore?

Martin: Yes, I live in Baltimore.

TOBI: My daughter is in fourth grade.

Martin: I visited fifth grade today. What's that?

TOBI: It's a rock. They're studying rocks in science (['saiəns] - наука).

Practice asking the question "What's that?" Ask about objects you really want to know the English word for. Write the words in your book so that you can practice them later.

Martin: What's that?

Mrs. S: It's a dress.

Martin: What's that?

Mrs. R: Soybeans.

Martin: What's that?

Pat: It's beans.

Martin: What's that?

Glen: It's corn.

Martin: What's that?

TOBI: It's a rock.

Martin: Hello, I'm Martin Learner.

JILL: Hi. I'm Jill Goldsmith.

Martin: What do you do? Are you a teacher?

JILL: No, I'm a student. I'm studying art. I'm going to teach art.

Martin: Where are you studying?

JILL: At the university.

Martin: Would you like coffee?

JILL: No, I would like cake.

Martin: Hello, Gary. This is Miss Goldsmith. This is Gary Durant. He's the assistant principal.

Gary: Hello, Miss Goldsmith.

JILL: Call me Jill.

Martin: She's a student. She's going to be an art teacher.

Gary: I'm delighted.

JILL: Are you a teacher?

Gary: Yes, I teach mathematics ([mæθə'mætiks] - математика).

Martin: Excuse us. We're going to find cake and coffee.

Gary: Come with me.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

similar - похожий, подобный (['simələ(r)])
earring - серьга (['iəriŋ])
shame - стыд, стыдить ([ʃeim])
opinion - мнение ([ə'pinjən])
cool - крутой, прохладный ([ku:l])
class - класс ([kla:s])
ashamed - пристыженный ([ə'ʃeimd])
experience - опыт ([ik'spiəriəns])
spread - распространение, распространять ([spred])
embarrass - смущать ([im'bærəs])
type - тип, шрифт ([taip])
wagon - вагон, повозка (['wægən])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

responsible - ответственный ([ri'spɒnsəbl])
tidy - уборка, убирать (['taidi])
complicate - усложнять (['kɒmplikeit])
occasional - случайный ([ə'keiʒnəl])
pause - пауза, делать паузу ([pɔ:z])
nervous - нервный (['nε:(r)vəs])
weird - странный ([wiə(r)d])
shallow - мель, мелководье, мелкий (['ʃæləʊ])
confuse - путать, смущать ([kən'fju:z])
responsibility - ответственность ([rispɒnsə'biləti])
tiredness - усталость (['taiədnəs])
irresponsible - безответственный, неответственный ([iri'spɒnsibəl])

The new verbs of this lesson are complicate, confuse, pause and tidy. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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