English for All

Lesson 79: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 10)
  • Lesson 10 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

bat1 [bæt] - летучая мышь, бита
character2 ['kærəktə(r)] - характер, персонаж
guide3 ['gaid] - гид, проводник, направлять
increase4 [in'kri:s] - увеличение, повышать
mark5 [ma:(r)k] - знак, метка, отмечать
musician6 [mju:'ziʃn] - музыкант
string7 [striŋ] - струна, веревка, строка
waterfall8 ['wɔ:tə(r)fɔ:l] - водопад
divide9 [di'vaid] - делить
musical6 ['mju:zikl] - музыкальный

1 - существительное bat имеет два непохожих друг на друга значение: "бита" - обычно деревянный предмет для отбивания мяча, и "летучая мышь" - животное.

2 - существительное character имеет также два основных значения, но уже более связанных друг с другом: "характер" - качество, которым обладает человек, и "персонаж" в фильме, театре, книге. Посмотрите примеры:

Her husband loves her for her character. - Ее муж любит ее за ее характер.
The main character kills his girlfriend at the beginning of the film. - Главный персонаж убивает свою девушку в начале фильма.

Обратите внимание на чтение сочетания ch не по правилам.

3 - основное значение существительного guide похоже на русское "гид", то есть человек, которые ведет людей, показывает и рассказывает им что-то. Но может иметь значение, близкое к русскому "гуру" - духовный ментор, руководитель.

Глагол guide означает "направлять, вести" по какому-то пути. Так как он близок по значению к глаголу направлению, то после него часто ставятся предлоги направления:

He guided us to the truth. - Он направил нас к правде.

4 - слово increase в основном используется в качестве глагола. Оно, также как и глагол weaken, может быть применено как к подлежащему, так и к дополнению. Этот глагол можно спутать с изученными ранее rise и raise. Но он имеет некоторое смысловое отличие. Глагол rise используется, когда что-то само по себе поднимается, а raise, когда кто-то поднимает что-то. Increase значит увеличиваться (расти) в размерах, количестве (о цене, весе, население, уровне). Хотя в некоторых случаях вполне могут присутствовать глаголы rise/raise:

The price increased/rose. - Цена увеличилась/поднялась.
The seller increased/raised the price. - Продавец увеличил/поднял цену.

Близок к этому глаголу еще один, изученный глагол grow, но его лучше применять по отношению к живым объектам и растениям.

В качестве существительного, после increase часто можно встретить предлог of, если говорится конкретное количество, на сколько произошло увеличение:

It caused the increase of two percent. - Это вызвало увеличение на 2 процента.

5 - в качестве глагола, mark значит "отмечать, обозначать" - делать метку. Реже он может значить "отмечать" какое-то событие, дату. Хотя здесь чаще используется пока не изученный глагол celebrate.

6 - от изученного ранее существительного music образуется два очень распространенных слова: существительное musician и прилагательное musical. Обратите внимание на различие в постановке ударения.

7 - существительное string имеет большое количество похожих друг на друга предметов. Это может быть любой предмет, образованный соединением нитей из различного материала: нить, веревка, шнурок, струна.

8 - существительное waterfall образовано от двух известных нам слов water и fall (здесь существительное падение).

9 - глагол divide, в отличие от изученного ранее глагола share, означает именно делить объект на части. После него ставится предлог into если говорится "на" сколько частей делится объект:

We divided all money into six equal parts. - Мы разделили все деньги на шесть равных частей.

Часто со словами half и two используется предлог in (если они подразумеваются как существительные):

We divided the pie in half/two. - Мы разделили пирог пополам/на двое.

Но:

We divided the pie into half/two parts. - Мы разделили пирог две части.

Look at these new words in sentences:

Your character hit a woman with a metal bat.
Твой персонаж ударил женщину металлической битой.
The guide marked our way with crosses on the wall.
Проводник помечал наш путь крестиками на стене.
The poor musician tore his string again.
Бедный музыкант снова порвал свою струну.
There are a lot of bats in the cave behind this waterfall.
В пещере за этим водопадом много летучих мышей.
The length of the string is enough to divide it in half.
Длина этой веревки достаточна, чтобы разделить ее на двое.
The waterfall increased the size of our lake.
Водопад увеличил размер нашего озера.
All our marks were washed by the rain.
Все наши метки были смыты дождем.
His strong character leads him in the life.
Его сильный характер ведет его в жизни.
We have the same musical taste.
У нас одинаковый музыкальный вкус.
The guide promises us to show all waterfalls of his country.
Гид обещает нам показать все водопады его страны.
Every string has a beginning and an end.
Каждая нить имеет начало и конец.
This big musician carries a bat in his trips.
Этот большой музыкант носит биту в своих поездках.
He is going to open a musical school.
Он собирается открыть музыкальную школу.
We walked along his marks.
Мы шли по его меткам.
The musician left his notes in the office.
Музыкант оставил свои заметки в офисе.
They had divided our house into six apartments.
Они разделили наш дом на шесть квартир.
Bats drink blood.
Летучие мыши пьют кровь.
Don't try to increse my suffering by saying these words.
Не пытайся увеличить мои страдания, говоря эти слова.
It is my favourite character in the book.
Это мой любимый персонаж в книге.
We have to tie these strings together to go down into this hole.
Мы должны связать эти веревки вместе, чтобы спуститься в это отверстие.

Let's continue reading the text.

Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 10)

Chapter 29: Lost in the Cave - Found But Not Saved

Tom and Becky had started through the branching cave with the other children. Then they had had enough of the games with the others. They had walked farther, talking, and reading the writing on the walls. People had put their names there. Tom and Becky also put their names on the wall.

They came to a place where a small stream of water fell over the rocks. Tom went behind the waterfall, to let his light shine through for Becky's pleasure.

Behind this waterfall Tom found an opening leading down, and he wanted to discover where this branch of the cave went. He made a mark on the wall to guide their return and started down with Becky following.

They continued farther and farther, making marks where they turned into a new branch, and discovering many wonderful new parts of the cave. One great room was full of hundreds of bats, which were hanging, asleep, on the walls. When the children entered, the bats came flying at the lights, and the children ran.

They came to a dark lake and sat down at the edge. Now, for the first time, they felt the deep quiet of the place. Becky said, "It is a very long time since I heard the others."

"Becky, we are far below them, and far north, or south, or east, or west. We can't hear them here."

Becky was afraid. "We should return. Can you find the way, Tom?"

"I think that I can. But there are those bats. A different way would be better."

"We must not get lost. It would be fearful!"

They started. But every turn now seemed strange. Becky's tears began to fall.

They stopped. Tom shouted. The answer was a deep quiet. It increased Becky's fear, and Tom began now to feel afraid. Becky said, "We must return to the lake and then go through the room full of bats. It would be better than being lost." But Tom said, "Becky, I have been a fool!" He had not remembered to make any marks. He had not expected to return to the lake.

"Tom, Tom, we're lost! We are lost! We never can get out of this fearful place! Oh, why did we leave the others?"

She dropped to the ground and wept so loudly that Tom feared that she might die. He sat down beside her and put his arms around her. He said that he was sorry, he said that he should never have brought her so far into the cave. Then she said that she also had been wrong; they'd both been wrong to come so far.

They started to walk again. Each had a light. Now they decided to use only one light and to save the other. They walked until they could go no further without resting. They talked of home, and their friends, and their beds, and they talked of sunlight. Becky's tears started again. And then she was asleep.

Tom watched her. Slowly her face grew peaceful, and then he felt some peace.

She opened her eyes, laughing - but suddenly the laugh ended. "Oh, I wish that I had never, never opened my eyes again! Oh, Tom! Do not look at me like that! I shall not say that again."

"We are going to find the way," Tom said. "We are going to try."

They rose and started to walk, hand in hand and without hope. Tom said that they must go quietly, and listen for falling water. They found it and sat down to rest again. Becky said:

"Tom, I am very hungry!"

Tom had saved a piece of the picnic cake. He took it from his pocket and divided it. They had cold water to drink. After eating and drinking, Becky was ready to move again.

But Tom said, "Becky, I must tell you. Our light is almost finished. We must stay here, where there is water."

Again Becky wept. Then a new thought came to her. "Tom, they will hunt for us! Perhaps they are hunting for us now. When would they discover that we were not with the others? On the boat?"

"It will be dark on the boat. But your mother will know that you have not come home."

Now Tom learned that Mrs. Thatcher did not expect Becky to return home that night.

Then their last light failed, and darkness was complete.

Becky wept a long time in Tom's arms. Neither knew how long she wept. Then both opened their eyes in the darkness and knew that they had been sleeping. Again they did not know how much time had passed.

Tom said that it might be Sunday. It might be a day later. But Becky would not talk. Her hopes were gone.

The hours passed. They were hungry again. Tom had saved most of his share of the cake. He divided it.

Then they heard a sound like a distant shout. Tom answered. It came again. They started moving carefully toward it. But they arrived at an edge of the rock, where the floor fell away. They could go no further. They listened. The distant shout was now more distant. And then they did not hear it, again.

They returned to the place where they had water to drink. Time passed. After sleeping again, when they opened their eyes, they thought that another day must have passed. They were very hungry.

Now Tom had a new idea. The cave had many small branches near them. Tom decided to learn about them. That would be better than sitting and doing nothing. He had some string in his pocket. He tied an end of this to a rock near the little waterfall. Then he and Becky started to walk carefully away. They let the string fall behind them. It would be a guide for their return.

After twenty steps, they came to a hole in the rock floor. Tom went down on his knees and felt below. Then he put his hands and his head as far as possible around the corner to look.

At that moment a human hand, holding a light, appeared from a rock not far away!

Tom shouted.

At once a body followed the hand. It was Indian Joe!

Tom could not move because of fear. He was deeply thankful to see Indian Joe run away.

He did not tell Becky what he had seen or why he had shouted.

They returned to the waterfall. But after another long wait and another sleep, Tom decided to try moving again. They were very hungry now. He thought that perhaps a week had passed.

Becky was not strong enough to go with him. She asked him to return often. She also asked him to return when all hope was gone and to hold her hand until she died. Tom promised.

He kissed her. Then, with the string in his hand, he started on his hands and knees through one of the openings in the rock. He was sick with fear and he had no hope.

Chapter 30: Tom Tells the Story of Their Escape

Sunday and two more days had passed. Few of the men continued their hunt in the cave. Most of the people believed that the children could never be found.

Mrs. Thatcher was very ill. Aunt Polly's hair had changed from gray to white.

Then, in the middle of the night the village bells began to ring. In a moment the streets were filled with people shouting, "They are found! They are found! They are found!" All moved toward the river and met the children as they were carried home. Aunt Polly's happiness was complete. Mrs. Thatcher's happiness would be complete when the news reached her husband. He was yet in the cave, continuing the hunt.

Tom lay on a bed telling the story of his wonderful adventures. They'd gone in one direction as far as the length of the string. Then he had tried another opening. Then he had tried a third. He was ready to try another when he saw a distant light. He thought that it was daylight. He dropped the string and ran toward it, and put his head out through a small hole.

And there was the great river on which the boat had brought them to the picnic!

He told how he then returned for Becky. She did not believe him. She told him to let her die. But after a while, she went with him. When she saw the daylight, she almost died of joy. He told how he got himself through the hole and then helped her.

They saw some men in a boat and shouted. At first, the men didn't believe their wild story. "Because," the men said, "you are five miles south of the door of the cave."

But they believed the children after a while and took them to a house where they were given food and allowed to rest before being taken home.

It was several days before Tom and Becky were strong again.

Tom learned of Huck's sickness and went to visit him. Mrs. Douglas would not let Tom talk about his adventures because Huck was not strong enough to listen. Also, she would not let the boys talk about what had happened at her house on Cardiff Hill. Tom learned about that at home. He heard, also, that "the other man" who had been with Indian Joe had been found in the river. He had drowned while trying to escape.

About two weeks later, Tom visited Becky at home. Judge Thatcher and some friends were there. They asked Tom if he wished to go into the cave again.

Tom said yes.

"Others might wish to go, also," the Judge said. "But I had that door covered with iron. And it is closed. It can't be opened. No person will get lost in that cave again."

"Oh, Judge," Tom said, "Indian Joe is in the cave!"

















































































knee [ni:] -
колено




indian ['indiən] -
индеец
















































iron [aiə(r)n] -
железо
_______________________________________________

Lesson 10 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson you will learn how to ask for help with a map. Today you will learn how to ask for directions with the aid of a map. Martin has lost his way in his car and stops to ask several people for help.

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 10, Part 1:

Martin: Excuse me. Where is Martin Luther King School?

Man: What?

Martin: Where is Martin -

Man: Wait a minute. Let me turn off my engine.

Man: Now.

Martin: Where is Martin Luther King School?

Man: Hmmm. Go three roads. Is it three? No. Go four roads. Then turn right. Then go two roads.

Martin: Wait. I have a map.

Man: Good.

Martin: Show me Martin Luther King School.

Man: Look here. We are here. There's the school.

Martin: I see. I go straight ahead three roads.

Man: Then turn and go there.

Martin: Turn right and go two roads.

Man: Martin Luther King School is there.

Martin: Wonderful. Thank you.

Woman: Goodbye Mr. Learner.

Martin: Thank you very much for your time. Goodbye. Where is the airport?

Woman: Oh, the airport? It's on Nixon Road.

Martin: Where is Nixon Road?

Woman: Turn left. Go straight ahead. Look for the sign.

Martin: I have a map. Please show me.

Woman: Oh, good.

Woman: Look here. We are here. That's the school.

Martin: I see.

Woman: Now look there. That's the airport. Turn left. Go straight ahead. Then turn on Nixon Road.

Martin: Thank you very much. Goodbye.

Martin: Hello.

Man: You again.

Martin: Yes. Sorry. I'm looking for the airport.

Man: OK. Show me your map.

Man: Where is the airport? Hmm. We are here.

Martin: I know that.

Man: The airport is there. Do you see the airport?

Martin: Yes.

Man: Look at this road. Go straight ahead. Then turn right. That is Nixon Road.

Martin: OK. Thanks. Goodbye.

Let's listen to the part of this conversation again. Listen closely to Martin Learner:

Man: Turn right. Then go two roads.

Martin: I have a map. Show me the school.

Woman: Go to Nixon Road.

Martin: I have a map. Show me the airport.

Now you ask someone to show you a place on a map ("I have a map. Show me the school/airport").

Man:Turn right. Then go two roads.

You: (I have a map. Show me the school.)

Woman: Go to Nixon Road.

You: (I have a map. Show me the airport.)

Now, try to give directions to a place. Listen to Martin Learner first:

Martin: Where is the school?

Man: Go four roads. Then turn right.

Martin: Where is the airport?

Woman: Turn left. Go straight ahead. The airport is on Nixon Road.

Martin: Where is the school?

You: (Go four roads. Then turn right.)

Martin: Where is the airport?

You: (Turn left. Go straight ahead. The airport is on Nixon Road.)

Man: Where are you going?

Martin: I'm going to Seattle ([si'ætl] - Сиэтл). I'm a reporter. I'm going to write a story.

Man: Are you from Seattle?

Martin: No. I'm from Chicago ([ʃi'ka:gəʊ]). I live in Baltimore ([bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)]) now.

Man: Good luck.

Martin: Thanks.

In the second part of the lesson you will practice telling others what you have. Martin Learner has a car. He has arrived at the Seattle airport. He is going to drive his rented (['rentid] - арендованная) car to the city, but he doesn't know the way

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 10, Part 2:

Martin: Excuse me.

Clerk ([kla:k] or [klε:rk] - служащий): Oh, good morning. May I help you?

Martin: Yes, please. I'm looking for the market. Where is the market?

Clerk: Leave the airport. Go to the city. Look for the signs.

Martin: Do you have a map?

Clerk: Yes, I have a map.

Martin: Show me on the map, please.

Clerk: Here we are. Look at this. We are here. This is the airport. Look at this.

Martin: I see.

Clerk: Take this road to the city. Are you driving?

Martin: Yes, I'm going to drive. I have a car.

Clerk: Look here. This is the market.

Martin: Tell me which street.

Clerk: I don't know. It's on the water. Look at this street. Take that street to the market.

Martin: OK. Now. Where is the harbor (['ha:(r)bə(r)] - гавань, порт)?

Clerk: The harbor?

Martin: Yes. I'm going to take the ferry (['feri] - паром).

Clerk: Oh, that harbor! It's near the market.

Martin: Tell me which street.

Clerk: Look at the map. The market is here. The ferry is there.

Martin: Excuse me. Where is the market?

Man: Over there.

Martin: Where?

Man: Oh, sorry. Are you driving?

Martin: Yes, I have a car.

Man: Good. Turn left. Then go for about twenty blocks. Then turn right.

Martin: I have a map. Please show me the market on the map.

Let's listen to some sentences:

Martin: Do you have a map?

Woman: Yes, I have a map.

Man: Do you have a car?

Martin: Yes, I have a car.

Woman: Do you have a license ([laisns] - лицензия, водительское удостоверение)?

Martin: Yes, I have a license.

Man: Do you have a phone number?

Martin: Yes, I have a phone number.

Now you answer the questions. Your answer contains "Yes, I have A/AN OBJECT" or "No, I don't have A/AN OBJECT".

Woman: Do you have a map?

You: (Yes, I have a map/No, I don't have a map)

Man: Do you have a car?

You: (Yes, I have a car/No, I don't have a car)

Woman: Do you have a license?

You: (Yes, I have a license/No, I don't have a license)

Man: Do you have a phone number?

You: (Yes, I have a phone number/No, I don't have a phone number)

Let's listen again:

Martin: I have a map.

Man: Martin has a map.

Woman: He has a map.

Martin: I have a car.

Man: Martin has a car.

Woman: He has a car.

In English the words "have" and "has" are forms of the same word. We say I have a map. You have a map. And we say, he has a map. She has a map. Listen again:

Woman: Martin has a car.

Man: He has a car.

Martin: I have a car.

Man: She has a car.

Woman: I have a car.

Martin: He has a car.

Man: I have a car.

Martin: Good afternoon. I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter. I want to ask some questions. Who are you?

Captain: I'm Kurt Adamson. I'm the captain.

Martin: I'm writing a story about the ferry.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

complain - жаловаться ([kəm'plein])
strangeness - странность (['streindʒnəs])
weaken - слабеть, ослаблять (['wi:kən])
disaster - катастрофа ([di'za:stə(r)])
mad - сумасшедший, безумный ([mæd])
captain - капитан (['kæptin])
public - публика, общественный, публичный (['pʌblik])
rubbish - мусор (['rʌbiʃ])
tight - плотный, жесткий ([tait])
pleasant - приятный ([pleznt])
hillside - склон (['hilsaid])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

guide - гид, проводник, направлять (['gaid])
divide - делить ([di'vaid])
musician - музыкант ([mju:'ziʃn])
mark - знак, метка, отмечать ([ma:(r)k])
bat - летучая мышь, бита ([bæt])
increase - увеличение, повышать ([in'kri:s])
waterfall - водопад (['wɔ:tə(r)fɔ:l])
string - струна, веревка, строка ([striŋ])
musical - музыкальный (['mju:zikl])
character - характер, персонаж (['kærəktə(r)])

The new verbs of this lesson are divide, guide, increase and mark. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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