English for All

Lesson 78: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 9)
  • Lesson 9 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

captain ['kæptin] - капитан
disaster [di'za:stə(r)] - катастрофа
hillside1 ['hilsaid] - склон
public2 ['pʌblik] - публика, общественность, общественный, публичный
rubbish3 ['rʌbiʃ] - мусор
strangeness4 ['streindʒnəs] - странность
weaken4 ['wi:kən] - слабеть, ослаблять
complain5 [kəm'plein] - жаловаться
mad(ly)6 [mæd(li)] - сумасшедший, безумный (безумно)
pleasant4 [pleznt] - приятный
tight(ly)7 [tait(li)] - плотный, жесткий (плотно)

1 - существительное hillside образуется от двух известных существительных hill и side, и буквально переводится "сторона холма".

2 - в английском языке не всегда можно точно определить в каком числе стоит существительное. В общем здесь нет ничего сложного, все зависит от контекста, в каком оно используется: единое целое или как отдельные члены, составляющие это существительное. К таким существительным можно отнести government, team, family. После существительного public также можно часто увидеть форму глагола единственного и множественного числа:

The public is/are becoming hungry. - Публика становится голодной.

3 - существительное rubbish переводится не только как физический предмет, не имеющий никакого значения, стоимости. Но относится и к нематериальным предметам (идея, мысль), которые являются глупыми, бесполезными.

4 - посмотрите еще на несколько слов, образованных от других частей речи:

  • Существительное strangeness образуется от прилагательного strange с помощью суффикса -ness.

  • Глагол weaken образуется от прилагательного weak с помощью суффикса -en.

  • Глагол weaken может относиться (применять свое действие) как к подлежащему, так и к дополнению:

    He weakened because of some strange illness. - Он ослабевал из-за какой-то странной болезни.
    We had weakened the stone by shaking it. - Мы ослабили камень качая его.
  • Прилагательное pleasant образуется от глагола please с помощью суффикса -ant. Обратите внимание на изменение чтения слога ea (не по правилам).

5 - после глагола complain возможны следующие случаи постановки предлога:

  • Предлог to, если говорится к кому обращается жалоба, даже если косвенное дополнение стоит после глагола:

  • I will complain to the police. - Я буду жаловаться в полицию.
  • Предлог about, если говорится на кого происходит жалоба или в чем она заключается:

  • I will complain about bad roads. - Я буду жаловаться на счет плохих дорог.
  • Предлог of, если происходит жалоба о своем состояние:

  • I will complain of my painful leg. - Я буду жаловаться на счет своей болезненной ноги.

6 - прилагательное mad означает, что существительное не здорово умственно, имеет психологические проблемы. Наречие, образованное от этого прилагательного, madly относится к наречиям образа действия (стоит перед смысловом глаголом или в конце предложение), и означает, что действие происходит бесконтрольно, безраздумно:

Everybody madly fled to the door. - Все безумно бежали к двери.

7 - прилагательное tight имеет много смысловых оттенков. Основные из них - объект является плотный (непроникаемый), одежда плотная (туго облегает тело), крепкий (тугой) узел, крепкий захват. Но это слово может быть и наречием, которое во многих ситуациях взаимозаменяемо с наречием образа действия tightly:

Hold me tight/tightly. - Держи меня крепко.

Look at these new words in sentences:

This famous captain often tells us about various disasters.
Этот знаменитый капитан часто рассказывает нам о различных катастрофах.
I miss all this public rubbish.
Я пропускаю весь этот публичный мусор мимо ушей.
People always fell on this icy hillside.
Люди всегда падали на этом ледяном склоне.
The pleasant captain tightly held his team together.
Приятный капитан крепко держал его команду вместе.
The strength of the public movement were weakening because of the growing frost.
Сила общественного движения слабела из-за ростущего мороза.
All the rubbish gathered at the bottom of the western hillside.
Весь мусор собирался внизу западного склона.
The sailor complained to the captain about the strangenesses of tourists.
Моряк жаловался капитану о странностях туристов.
There are only pleasant public at our party.
На нашей вечеринке только приятная публика.
He was mad because of our visit.
Он был вне себя из-за нашего визита.
This marriage will tightly tie our families.
Эта свадьба крепка свяжет наши семьи.
Why do you think people throw rubbish near your house?
Почему ты думаешь, люди бросают мусор около твоего дома?
The mad captain had led our team to the disaster.
Безумный капитан привел нашу команду к катастрофе.
There are a lot of children on this hillside in winter.
На этом холме много детей зимой.
We gathered the public meeting about the strangeness of our government's actions.
Мы собрали публичную встречу по поводу странности действий нашего правительства.
The disaster weakened our town.
Катастрофа ослабила наш город.
His ideas are rubbish.
Его идеи - мусор.
The captain madly started to seek a decision.
Капитан безумно начал искать решение.
How could you dress these tight trousers?
Как ты смог одеть эти плотные брюкие?
This pleasant girl doesn't have any strangeness.
У этой приятной девушки нет никакой странности.
Don't complain to me about your girlfriend.
Не жалуйся мне о своей девушке.
My friend have weakened after he drank a little beer.
Мой друг ослабел после того как он выпил немного пива.
How can the public believe in all the rubbish that sounds on TV?
Как публика может верить в весь мусор, что звучит по ТВ?

Now we continue reading the text.

Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 9)

Chapter 25: Doubts

The adventure of the day troubled Tom's dreams that night. Four times he had his hands on that gold. Four times he opened his eyes and discovered that he had nothing. In the early morning, as he was in bed, thinking of his great adventure, it all seemed strangely far away. It might have happened in another world, or in a time long past. Then the thought came to him that the great adventure itself must be a dream!

The amount of money was too big to be real. He'd never seen as much as half a hundred dollars before.

He decided to find Huck and let Huck talk. He would ask Huck no questions. If Huck did not speak of the adventure, then Tom would know that it had been a dream.

Huck was sitting on the edge of a boat, with his feet in the water. He seemed very sad.

"Hello, Huck!"

"Hello yourself."

No words for a minute.

"Tom, if we had not put our gardening things in that corner, we would have that money."

"It was not a dream, it was not a dream! But I almost wish that it was."

"Dream! If Indian Joe had found us, you would know that it was not a dream! I have had dreams about him all the night."

"We must find him! Find the money! We must find his Number Two place. Perhaps it is the number of a house."

"No, Tom. The houses in this town do not have numbers."

"Perhaps it is the number of a room in a public house for travelers. Those rooms have numbers."

"Oh, that is the answer! There are only two public houses here. We can quickly learn about Number Two."

"You stay here, Huck, until I return."

Tom was gone half an hour. He learned that in one public-house a well-known young man lived in room Number Two. But in the other public-house, Number Two was always closed. No person seemed to know much about it. However, a light had been seen in the window the night before.

"That is Indian Joe's Number Two, Huck."

"I think you are right, Tom. Now, what will you do?"

"Let me think."

Tom thought a long time. Then he said:

"I will tell you. The door of Number Two opens on a little street at the back of the house. We must wait for a dark night. Then we shall try to get in. But if you see Indian Joe, follow him. And if he does not go to that Number Two, it can't be the place."

"I am afraid to follow him alone, Tom!"

"It will be night. If I see him, and if it is dark, I will follow him, I promise. He might be going straight to that money. You must not weaken, Huck, and I won't."

Chapter 26: Number Two - Huck as Guard

They waited three nights. The fourth night was dark enough.

The public-house was closed at a late hour, but Tom and Huck were near. Indian Joe had not been seen. No other person had been in the street behind the house.

The two adventurers moved quietly toward the door in the darkness. Huck stopped, to remain as a guard, and Tom went forward. Then there was a long wait. To Huck, it seemed like hours. What had happened to Tom? Had he died from fear? Huck's breathing was very fast and his heart beat madly.

Suddenly Tom came rushing out. "Run! Run for your life!"

They never stopped running until they were at the other end of the village. There stood an old building, now not used. As they entered, rain began to fall heavily.

"Huck, it was fearful! I tried and tried to open the door - and then suddenly it opened without effort. I stepped into the room, and - Huck, I almost stepped on Indian Joe's hand!"

"No!"

"Yes! He was there, asleep on the floor. Drunk, I believe. I turned and ran."

"Tom, did you see that box?"

"Huck, I did not wait to look around. I did not see the box. I did not see any cross. I only saw a cup on the floor beside Indian Joe. And more to drink; the room is full of it."

"Tom, if Indian Joe is drunk, now is the time to get that box."

"Is it? You get it."

Huck began to shake. "No, I believe not."

"And I believe not, Huck. Listen, Huck. Wait until we know that Indian Joe is not in there. We can watch every night. Then we can go fast and get that box."

"I agree. Let me watch all night and every night. You do the other part of the job."

"I will. And now the rain has stopped. You go and watch. And when you want me at night, come to my window and make a noise like a cat."

Chapter 27: The Picnic - Indian Joe's Job

The next morning Tom heard glad news - Judge Thatcher's family had returned. Both Indian Joe and the box of gold were not so important for a while.

More good news made the day perfect. The following day Becky would have her picnic.

Before eleven in the morning the young people were at Judge Thatcher's house, ready to start. Soon the happy group was walking toward the river. They were going to ride down the river on the old riverboat.

Sid did not go; he was sick. Mary stayed with him.

Mrs. Thatcher said to Becky, "You'll return late. Perhaps you should stay all night at the home of a girl friend who lives near the river."

"I can stay with Susy Harper, Mother."

"Good. And be a good girl."

The boat took them three miles down the river. There it was tied to the shore. The crowd ran off the boat and into the forest. Soon shouting and laughing could be heard from many places.

After a while, all were hot and ready to rest. They met again near the boat and began to eat the good things they had brought with them. After eating, they rested in the shade of the big trees.

Then there was a shout: "Who is ready to go to the cave?"

All were ready. They got lights to guide them in the darkness and started to walk up the hill. The cave could be entered through an opening in the hillside. A door had been placed across the opening, but it was not closed. Inside was a small, very cold room. The walls were rock and always had water running down them.

It was a strange pleasure to stand there in the darkness and look out at the green valley shining in the sunlight. But the strangeness was soon past, and the children began to play and run through other parts of the cave. None of these parts was wide and some were very small. Some led to other rooms made of rock. Some of these were very big; the children could not see the top of them.

A person might walk days and nights and never find the end of this cave. He might go down and down, and yet further down into the earth, always finding new parts and new rooms. No person knew the whole cave. Only part of it was known, and people did not go where others had not gone before. Tom Sawyer knew as much of the cave as any person.

The children walked for almost a mile before any of them started to return to the outside. Then one group after another began arriving at the opening on the hillside. They were surprised to see that it was almost night. The boat's bell had been calling for half an hour.

However, they thought this end to the day's adventures was delightful. Only the captain of the boat was sorry that he had waited so long.

Huck saw the lights of the returning riverboat. He was already watching for Indian Joe. There were clouds in the sky and the night was becoming very dark. The people in the village began to go home to sleep. The village clock was striking eleven and nothing had happened. Huck also began to think of sleep.

Then a noise came to his ear. The next moment two men passed near him. One was carrying something. It must be that box! Should he call Tom? No. The men would carry away the box and it would never be found again. He would follow them. Without shoes, as usual, Huck moved as quietly as a cat.

The men went toward the river, and then, turning, went up Cardiff Hill. Passing the house of an old man named Jones, they arrived at the top of the hill. There, among the trees, they could not be seen.

Huck stopped, listened, but heard no sound except his own heart. He knew that he was not far from the house of Mrs. Douglas, an old lady who lived alone.

Then, very near, he heard a voice. It was Indian Joe. He said, "There are lights. It is late, but she is not alone."

"I can't see any lights." That was the other man.

Huck's heart was cold. This was the job Indian Joe had talked of!

Mrs. Douglas had often been kind to Huck. Perhaps these men were planning to kill her. He wished that he dared to run to the house and tell her. But the men would catch him.

"Look from here," said Indian Joe. "Now do you see the lights?"

"Yes. Forget the job."

"Forget it! I have told you before, you can have her money, I do not want it. But her husband put me in jail. Then he died. I can't hurt him. But she is living yet."

"You must not kill her!"

"I will not kill her. But I am going to cut her face, and that hurts a woman more than killing. You will help me or I will kill you. And if I must kill you, I will kill her, too. Then she can't tell who killed you."

"If we must do it, then do it now."

"No. Wait until the house is dark."

Huck knew that all would be quiet, and the quiet would be more fearful than the talk of killing. Very, very carefully he moved down the hill.

When he dared, he began to run. He arrived at Mr. Jones's house and beat on the door. Mr. Jones and his two strong sons opened a window and looked out.

"What is that noise? Who are you? What do you want?"

"Let me in - quick."

"Who are you?"

"Huckleberry Finn. Quick, let me come in."

"Huckleberry Finn, indeed. Is that a name to make me open a door? But let him come in, boys. What does he want?"

"Please never tell that I told you," were Huck's first words. "I would surely be killed - but Mrs. Douglas has been a good friend to me. I want to tell you."

"Speak," said the old man. "We will never tell, boy."

Three minutes later the old man and his sons, carrying guns, were going up the hill. Huck went only part of the way. Then he stopped behind a large stone and listened.

Suddenly he heard the guns and a cry.

He waited for nothing more, but ran down the hill as fast as his legs could carry him.

Chapter 28: The Old Man Reports - Hope Begins to Weaken

The next day was Sunday.

In the very early morning Huck called gently at the old man's door. "Please let me come in! It is only Huck Finn."

"That name will open this door night or day, boy!"

These were strange words to the boy's ears. He could not remember hearing any so kind and pleasant before. The door was quickly opened, and he entered.

"Now, boy, I hope that you are hungry because as soon as the sun come up, we'll have something hot to eat. We hoped that you would come here again last night."

"When I heard the guns, I ran. I ran for three miles. I came now because I want to know what happened. I came before daylight because I do not want to meet those men, living or dead."

"They are not dead, boy. We are sorry for that. They heard us coming, and they ran. Then we went down to the village to get help. Men have gone to watch at the river. More men will hunt through the forest today. My sons will join them. I wish we had seen those two men. Could you see them in the dark?"

"I can tell you about them. One is a man that you have seen in the village. He has long white hair. He can't hear and he can't talk." Then he told about the other man's face and clothes.

When his sons had gone, Mr. Jones asked Huck why he had followed the men up the hill. Huck told, after much thought, that one man was Indian Joe. But he did not tell about the box of money.

Soon people began coming to the house, and Huck went where they could not see him.

Mrs. Douglas was among the first to come. She came to thank Mr. Jones for saving her from being hurt by the men.

"You should not thank me," he said. "There is another person who did more to help you. But he does not want thanks."

All the people in the village went to church early that day. They wanted to talk about the two bad men. The two had not been found, and nothing had been learned about where they had gone.

Leaving the church, Mrs. Thatcher walked behind Mrs. Harper. She said, "Is my Becky going to sleep all day?"

"Your Becky?"

"Yes. She stayed with you last night, I believe."

"No."

Mrs. Thatcher stopped suddenly. She seemed ill.

At that moment Aunt Polly joined them. She said, "Good morning, Mrs. Thatcher. Good morning, Mrs. Harper. I suppose that my Tom stayed with Fred or Joe last night without telling me. And now he is afraid to come to church."

Mrs. Thatcher seemed more ill than before. She moved her head, saying no.

"He did not stay with us," said Mrs. Harper. Her face showed surprise and a little fear.

Aunt Polly also showed fear. "Joe Harper," she said, "Have you seen my Tom this morning?"

"No."

"When did you see him last?"

But Joe could not remember.

People had stopped moving out of the church. The story traveled quickly among them. Children were questioned. No child could remember seeing Becky and Tom on the returning riverboat. It was dark then. No person had thought of counting the group. A young man now said that Tom and Becky might be lost in the cave.

Mrs. Thatcher closed her eyes tightly. Aunt Polly began to weep. Within five minutes bells were ringing and all the people were gathering. What had happened at Mrs. Douglas's house was not important now. In half an hour two hundred men were going, either by river or by road, toward the cave.

Through the long afternoon the village seemed dead. Many women went to visit Aunt Polly and Mrs. Thatcher. They wept with them, and that was more help than words. Through the long night, the town waited for news. But in the morning only this news came: "Send more food and more lights."

Mrs. Thatcher was almost ill, Aunt Polly also.

Old Mr. Jones came home from the cave at noon and discovered that Huck was sick. Mrs. Douglas came to care for him. Other men began to return from the cave, but the stronger men continued their hunt.

They visited the farther parts of the cave. They shouted, they shot guns, but they had no answer. Often a light would be seen far away, and they would think that the children were found. But the light always belonged to another of the hunters. The names "Becky" and "Tom" were found marked on a rock, and the string that had tied Becky's hair was found.

Three days and nights passed.

Huck asked about Tom Sawyer.

Mrs. Douglas said, "Quiet, child. You must not talk. You are very sick." She began to weep.

There were not many now with enough hope or strength to continue hunting for Tom Sawyer.

















Indian ['indiən] -
индеец















































































































clock - стрелка часов




































































































































mark [ma:(r)k] -
отмечать
string [striŋ] -
веревка
_______________________________________________

Lesson 9 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson you will learn to follow requests ([ri'kwests] - требования) and polite commands ([kə'ma:ndz] - команды), and to request (требовать) information politely. Martin Learner's car has been stolen. He reports it to the police. In today's lesson you will learn to understand requests and polite commands.

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 9, Part 1:

Martin: Hello! Hello! Is this the police? Hello. What? Is this the police? Good. I'm Martin Learner. Martin - M-A-R-T-I-N. Learner - L-E-A-R-N-E-R. Yes. Martin Learner! What? My car. My car is missing! Missing! It is not here! At the hotel. The Denver (['denvə(r)]) Hotel. My car is not here! Come to the police station? OK.

DESK Clerk ([kla:k or klε:rk] - чиновник): Good morning, Mr. Learner. May I help you?

Martin: I'm going to the police.

Clerk: About your car?

Martin: Yes. Where is the police station?

Clerk: The police station!? I don't know. Wait a moment.

Clerk: Mr. Hudson. Where is the police station? It's Mr. Learner. His car is missing. Thank you, Mr. Hudson.

Clerk: The Police Station is on Johnson Street.

Martin: Where is Johnson Street?

Clerk: Go straight ahead for three streets. That's Johnson Street. Turn left.

Policewoman: Tell me where you live, please.

Martin: I live at fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street. Baltimore ([bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)]), Maryland (['miərilənd] - Мэриленд).

Woman: Fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street, Baltimore, Maryland. Give me your phone number.

Martin: Four-one-oh, five-five-five, six-seven-two-nine.

Woman: Please show me your driver's license ([laisns] - лицензия, водительское удостоверение).

Martin: Here.

Woman: OK.

Woman: Tell me what happened.

Martin: I went to the garage to get my car. I'm going home today. I'm a reporter-

Woman: Stop! Slow down. Now, begin again.

Detective ([di'tektiv] - детектив): Good morning, Nikki.

Woman: Good morning, SAM. Come here. SAM, this is Mr. Learner. This is Detective SAM Brook.

Detective: I'm looking for your missing car.

Woman: Sit down, SAM.

Please listen to the conversation of the woman policeman again:

Tell me where you live.
Give me your phone number.
Show me your driver's license.
Tell me what happened.
Stop. Slow down. Begin again.
Come here.
Sit down.

These sentences are requests by the speaker, in this case, the policewoman, for action to be carried out (выполнены) by the listener. Such requests or commands begin with an action word and are very important in many situations. For example, at a police station or office:

Come here.-Come.
Sit down.-Sit.
Look at the paper.-Look.
Spell ([spel - произносить по буквам) your name.-Spell.
Write your name.-Write.
Give me your phone number.-Give.
Tell me what happened.-Tell.

You might hear or read these requests on the street:

Stop. Go. Walk. Cross. Look out. Move along.

It's important to learn some of these action words. Write and study the meanings of them:

Stop. Go. Come. Stand. Sit. Walk. Turn. Look. Tell. Give. Show. Write.

Listen to Martin Learner at the police station. Sometimes Martin responds ([ri'spɒndz] - отвечает) by speaking, sometimes he responds through actions.

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 9, Part 2:

Detective: OK, Mr. Learner. Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Baltimore, Maryland. I'm a reporter. I write stories for radio.

Detective: Where are you going?

Martin: I'm going to Baltimore. I'm going home.

Detective: I lived in Maryland. I studied at the University ([ju:ni'vε:(r)səti] - университет) of Maryland. I study in Denver now.

Policewoman: Excuse me, Mr. Learner. Read this.

Martin: Martin Learner. Fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street, Baltimore, Maryland. Telephone, four-one-oh, five-five-five, six-seven-two-nine.

Woman: OK?

Martin: Yes.

Woman: Sign your name here. And sign here.

Let's listen to the part of the conversation at the police station again:

Woman: Tell me your name.

Martin: Martin Learner.

Woman: Spell your name.

Martin: Martin, M-A-R-T-I-N. Learner, L-E-A-R-N-E-R.

Woman: Give me your phone number.

Martin: Four-one-oh, five-five-five, six-seven-two-nine.

Can you give the information requested?

Woman: Tell me your name.

You: (My name is "YOUR NAME".)

Woman: Spell your name.

You: (M-Y N-A-M-E.)

Woman: Give me your phone number.

You: (Say your phone number.)

Many requests do not require speech but do require action. Understanding these requests and responding appropriately ([ə'prəʊpriətli] - соответствующе) is important in learning more English. You might hear these requests in a classroom (['kla:sru:m] - класс):

Stand up. Sit down. Open your books. Look at me.
Read your books. Write the answers. Stand. Sit. Open.
Look. Read. Write.

Write these words and study their meanings:

Stop. Go. Come. Stand. Sit. Walk. Turn. Look. Tell. Give. Show. Write.

Detective: OK, Mr. Learner. Pick up your driver's license. We're going.

Martin: Where are we going?

Detective: We're going to the hotel. We're going to find your car.

Martin: My car is not there. It's missing.

Detective: I know, I know. But I'm going to look.

Woman: Take your coat.

Martin: Thank you.

Detective: Tell me the color of your car.

Martin: It's blue.

Detective: Tell me what kind of car.

Martin: It's a Ford.

Detective: Give me your keys. Wait here. I'm going to look for your car.

Detective: There is no blue Ford.

Martin: I know! It's not here. It's missing.

Detective: First I looked upstairs. Then I looked downstairs.

Martin: I looked upstairs. And I looked downstairs. It's missing!

Let's listen to some parts of conversations in Lesson 9. They show the use of present time action words and the past time of those same words:

Martin: I live in Baltimore, Maryland.

Detective: I lived in Maryland. I studied at the University of Maryland. I study in Denver now.

Detective: I'm going to look for your car.

Martin: I looked upstairs. I looked downstairs.

Remember that one way to talk about events in the past is to change the endings of action words. "Live - Lived. Study - Studied. Look - Looked." Listen to these sentences again:

Martin: I live in Baltimore, Maryland.

Detective: I lived in Maryland.

Detective: I study in Denver now. I studied at the University of Maryland.

Detective: I'm going to look for your car.

Martin: I looked upstairs.

Can you reply to the following requests?

Woman: Tell me your name.

You: (My name is "YOUR NAME".)

Woman: Write your name.

You: (OK.)

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

bone - кость ([bəʊn])
fashion - мода ([fæʃn])
deserve - заслуживать ([di'zε:(r)v])
single - одинокий, единственный (['siŋgl])
information - информация ([infə(r)'meiʃn])
magazine - журнал ([mægə'zi:n])
style - стиль ([stail])
mostly - главным образом, в основном (['məʊstli])
gather - собрать, собраться (['gæðə(r)])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

rubbish - мусор (['rʌbiʃ])
hillside - склон (['hilsaid])
tight - плотный, жесткий ([tait])
mad - сумасшедший, безумный ([mæd])
captain - капитан (['kæptin])
complain - жаловаться ([kəm'plein])
pleasant - приятный ([pleznt])
disaster - катастрофа ([di'za:stə(r)])
strangeness - странность (['streindʒnəs])
public - общественный, публичный (['pʌblik])
weaken - слабеть, ослаблять (['wi:kən])

The new verbs of this lesson are complain and weaken. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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