English for All

Lesson 77: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 8)
  • Lesson 8 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

bone [bəʊn] - кость
fashion [fæʃn] - мода
information [infə(r)'meiʃn] - информация
magazine [mægə'zi:n] - журнал
style [stail] - стиль
deserve [di'zε:(r)v] - заслуживать
gather1 ['gæðə(r)] - собрать, собраться
single2 ['siŋgl] - одинокий, единственный
mostly3 ['məʊstli] - главным образом, в основном

1 - глагол gather похож по значению на изученные ранее глаголы collect и pick up. Но gather чаще используется, когда кто-то/что-то собирается вместе в одном месте, воедино:

I gathered all information together. - Я собрал всю информацию вместе.

Но часто эти глаголы взаимозаменяемы.

2 - может показаться, что прилагательное single похоже на изученные ранее alone и lonely. Но на самом деле, оно значит совсем другое, и по значению ближе к слову only в значение прилагательного, то есть значит не одинокий, а скорее единственный (один) в обстановке:

We often see families with a single child. - Мы часто видим семьи с единственным ребенком.
There is a single bright colour among these gray shades. - Среди этих серых оттенков есть один яркий цвет.

В значение "одинокий" оно относится только к неженатым/незамужним людям:

Here you can find a lot of single men. - Здесь вы можете найти много одиноких мужчин.

3 - mostly является наречием образа действия, то есть стоит перед смысловым глаголом (после вспомогательного) или в конце предложения:

It mostly rests more adult people here. - Здесь в основном отдыхают более взрослые люди.

Look at these new words in sentences:

Your style changed after reading all these magazines.
Твой стиль изменился после прочтения всех этих журналов.
I don't know an animal which can have such huge bones.
Я не знаю животного, которое может иметь такие огромные кости.
This magazine mostly sets the future fashion.
Этот журнал главным образом устанавливает будующую моду.
His single mother deserves to find a worthy man.
Его одинокая мама заслуживает найти достойного мужчину.
The policemen couldn't gather all bones at such a large crime scene.
Полицейские не могли собрать все кости на таком большом месте преступления.
The whether will be mostly rainy.
Погода будет в основном дождливая.
The single information which is known to us about you is that you are not married.
Единственная информация, известная нам о тебе, это то, что ты не женат.
Children gathered all found toys in one corner.
Дети собрали все найденные игрушки в один угол.
She deserved to be on the first page of this magazine.
Она заслуживала быть на первой странице этого журнала.
The scientists will gather all information about these bones soon.
Ученые соберут всю информацию об этих костей скоро.
The father mostly spends all his time at work.
Отец в основном тратит все его время на работе.
Your style doesn't match fashion.
Твой стиль не соответствует моде.
We didn't deserve such attitude to ourselves.
Мы не заслуживали такого отношения к себе.
The teacher gathered his pupils to find out who spoilt his book.
Учитель собрал его учеников, чтобы узнать кто испортил его книгу.
It is the most famous magazine in the world.
Это самый известный журнал в мире.
I mostly like your style.
Мне в основном нравится твой стиль.
It demands a lot of money to follow fashion.
Это требует много денег следовать моде.
Her single dream is to gather her kids together.
Ее единственная мечта - собрать ее детей вместе.

Now, let's continue reading the text.

Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 8)

Chapter 23: Dead People and Spirits

There comes a time in every boy's life when he wants to hunt for gold and silver that pirates have put deep in the earth.

This desire suddenly came to Tom. He tried to find Joe Harper, but failed. He tried to find Ben Rogers, but Ben had gone fishing. Then he met Huck Finn. Tom took him to a place where they could be alone, and he explained. Huck agreed. Huck always agreed to do anything that would require time but not money. He had no money, but much time.

"Where?" said Huck.

"Oh, almost anywhere."

"Do you mean that there is money in the ground everywhere?"

"No. It is in very special places, Huck. Sometimes on islands, sometimes in old boxes under the end of a dead branch of an old tree, but mostly under the floor in a house where the spirits of the dead gather."

"Who puts it there?"

"People who take it away from other people."

"Why do they put it in the ground? If I were rich, I would spend my money and enjoy it."

"I would, too. But these people are different."

"Do they never return and get it?"

"No. They think that they will, but they forget where it is. Or they die."

"How are you going to find it, Tom? Where will you look?"

"We tried hunting for gold on the island when we were pirates. I know where there is a house full of spirits. And there are old trees with dead branches everywhere."

"Is there gold and silver under every dead branch?"

"No! That would not be possible!"

"How do you know which one to choose?"

"Choose all of them!"

"Tom, we shall be working all summer!"

"What is wrong with that? We might find a hundred dollars. Or valuable stones, like diamonds. How would you like that?"

Huck's eyes were shining. "Give me the hundred dollars, and you can have the valuable stones, like diamonds."

"Have you ever seen a diamond, Huck?"

"I do not remember that I have."

"Kings have diamonds. And I've heard that some of them are worth a dollar or more! Kings have hundreds of them."

"I do not know any kings, Tom."

"If you go to Europe you will see them jumping around."

"Do they jump?"

"Jump? No."

"Why did you say that they jumped?"

"Oh, I mean that you will see kings everywhere. Not jumping. Why should they jump? But you will see many of them."

The boys got some gardening things, used for making holes in the earth. Then they walked three miles to an old tree with a single dead branch. They were very hot and they sat in the shade of another tree to rest and smoke.

Tom said, "Huck, if we find some money, what will you do with it?"

"Spend it! Before my father takes it and spends it. What will you do with yours?"

"I will get married."

"Married! Tom, you would be a fool. Think of my father and mother. Fight! They were fighting all the time. I remember."

"The girl I will marry won't fight."

"Tom, they are all the same. Who is she?"

"I won't tell you now."

"If you marry, I will be more lonely than I am now."

"No, you won't. You will come to live with me. Now we must start working."

They worked for half an hour. They found no box of money in the hole that they were making. They worked another half hour. Then Huck said:

"Is the money always so deep in the ground?"

"Not always. Perhaps this is not the right place."

They began on the other side of the tree. They worked without talking for a while. Then Huck stopped to dry his hot face and said:

"Where do we try next?"

"There is an old tree on Cardiff Hill behind Mrs. Douglas's house."

"That might be a good place. But won't she take the money away from us? It is her land."

"If you find money in the ground, it belongs to you. It does not belong to the owner of the land."

That was fine. The work continued. After a while Tom said:

"We must be in the wrong place again. Oh, I understand! What a fool I was! We must know where the shade of the dead branch is under the light of the moon in the middle of the night. That is where we must hunt for the money."

The boys stopped work and returned to the tree that night. It was a lonely place. They talked little. When they felt that the right hour had come, they found the shade in the moonlight under the branch and began to work.

Their interest was strong. They worked fast. The hole grew deeper and deeper. But every time they found something hard in the earth, it was only a rock. After a while Tom said:

"Huck, we are wrong again."

"We can't be wrong. We saw the shade of the branch."

"But perhaps the time was not right. We guessed. We did not know."

"We should stop trying," Huck said. "We never know the right time. And I do not like the middle of the night, with spirits of dead men around. I feel that there is one behind me all the time, and I am afraid to turn."

"I feel the same, Huck. And they almost always put a dead man in the hole to guard the gold and silver."

"They do?"

"Yes, they do. I've always heard that."

"Tom, I do not like to be where there are dead people. They will certainly cause trouble for us."

"And I do not like it. Suppose this one should lift his head? He is only bones now. Suppose his bones should speak to us."

"Stop that talk, Tom! That is a fearful idea."

"Huck, I do not like this place. We can try another."


"The old house where the spirits gather."

"Tom, I do not like spirits or their houses. Dead people may speak to us, perhaps. But they won't come quietly behind us, as spirits do, then suddenly make fearful noises."

"But, Huck, spirits travel only at night. We can go to the house in the day."

"That is true. But people never go near that house in the day or the night."

"That is because a man was killed there. But nothing is seen except in the night. And then only blue lights are seen."

"When you see those blue lights, Tom, you know that spirits are near. Because only spirits use them. I agree to go to the house if you want to. But I do not think that it is safe."

Chapter 24: Sleeping Spirits - A Box Full of Gold

On Saturday, soon after noon, the boys met at the dead tree. They smoked and talked in the shade. Then they worked a little at their last hole. They had no great hope. But Tom said that people sometimes stopped working when they had almost found the box of gold. Then another person came and with very little work discovered it.

However, they failed to find anything. But they felt that they had done everything that was possible.

When they arrived at the old house, they were first afraid to go in. It was completely quiet there under the hot sun, and very lonely.

Then they went without any noise to the door and looked in, shaking with fear. They saw a room with an earthen floor. There was a place where a fire had been built, windows without glass, and dust was everywhere.

They entered. They did not dare to speak. Their ears were ready to hear any small sound. Their legs were ready to carry them quickly outside again.

Soon their fear became less. They looked around with interest. Then they wanted to look at the room above.

They found nothing up there and were starting to go down when -

"Be quiet!" Tom's voice was shaking.

"What is it?" Huck asked, becoming white with fear.

"There!... Hear it?"

"Yes!... We must run!"

"We can't move. They are coming toward the door."

The boys were on the floor, looking down into the room below through holes, sick with fear, waiting.

Two men entered. Both boys had seen one of the men in the village. He seemed to be very old. He had long white hair hanging around his shoulders, and much white hair growing on his face. It seemed to the village people sad that he could neither hear nor speak.

The other man was a stranger. He was wearing very old clothes. His face was not pleasant. He was talking as they entered.

The two men sat on the ground, with their backs against the wall.

"No," said the other man. "I've been thinking about it. I do not like it. They will catch us."

"You fool!" said the man who was believed not to be able to hear or speak. "You are afraid!"

The boys were now shaking with fear. This man was Indian Joe!

Joe said, "We were not caught before."

"But that was different."

"They may catch us here in this house," Joe said. "I wanted to leave here yesterday. But those boys were playing on Cardiff Hill. They would have seen us."

«Those boys» were Tom and Huck. They were shaking again. What would have happened to them yesterday, if they had come to this house? They wished that they had waited a year before coming.

The two men had brought some food, and they began to eat.

After a while Joe said, "When it is dark, go home. Wait there until you hear from me. I will go into the village once again. Then we will do the job we planned. And then we will run. Far away. Now I need sleep. You stay here as a guard."

He was soon asleep. And then the guard, too, was soon sleeping. The boys took a long, thankful breath. Tom said:

"Now is our chance - come!"

Huck said, "I can't. I would die if they opened their eyes."

He would not move, and Tom started to leave alone. But the old floor made so much noise that he stopped, almost dead with fear.

Slowly time passed until the sun was going down.

Indian Joe sat up and called the other. He said, "It is almost time for us to be moving. What shall we do with our money? Shall we leave it here until we are ready to run? Six hundred silver dollars is heavy to carry. We can put it in the ground. Deep."

His friend agreed. He went to the place where the fire had been built, raised one of the big stones from the earthen floor, and took out a big bag of money.

The boys began to forget their fears. Six hundred dollars would make six boys rich! And they knew where Indian Joe was putting it. Indian Joe was in a corner, making a hole in the ground with his knife. The boys did not dare to speak, but they looked at each other often. These looks were easy to understand. Their meaning was, "Oh, how glad we are now to be here!"

They heard Indian Joe's knife strike something hard.

"Look here!" he said.

"What is it?" said his friend.

"It is an old box," Joe said. "Help me lift it. No, I have broken it open." He put his hand in the box and then brought it out again. "Man, this is money!"

The two looked at the handful of money. It was gold.

Now the men found the gardening things that the boys had been using and had placed in another corner when they came into the house. Using them, they started to work. They soon had the box out of the earth. It was not large, but it had once been very strong, with iron bands to hold the wood together.

"There are thousands of dollars here," said Indian Joe.

"Now it won't be necessary to do that job in the village," said the other.

Indian Joe said, "You do not understand. I am not doing that job only for money. Wrong was done to me, and I am going to pay them for it. I need your help. Go home until I tell you to come."

"What do we do with this money? Put it in the ground again?"

"Yes." (Delight for the boys above his head.) "No!" (Deep sadness above.) "Where did those gardening things come from? There was fresh earth on them. Who was here? We must take the money away. I have a good place for it. At the Number Two place, under the cross."

"It is nearly dark enough to go."

Indian Joe went from window to window, looking out. Then he said, "Who could have come here? Do you think they are in the room above us?"

The boys' breath stopped.

Indian Joe put his hand on his knife and started to go up. The boys could not move; their strength was gone. They heard Joe coming.

Then they heard the sound of breaking wood, and Joe fell to the ground.

"No people are up there," his friend said. "They saw us coming and they ran. They thought that we were spirits or devils, and they are running yet."

Soon the two men went out of the house with the box of gold and the bag of silver dollars.

Tom and Huck watched them through holes in the wall. But would the boys follow? No. They were happy enough to get away from the house with no broken bones and then return to the town.

They did not talk much. They decided to watch in the town for Indian Joe, and then follow him to the Number Two place.

Tom had a fearful thought. "Indian Joe said that he would pay wrong with wrong. Was he talking about us, Huck?"

Feeling suddenly weak, Huck almost fell to the ground.

earthen - земляной

pleasant [pleznt] -

Indian ['indiən] -

handful - горсть

band [bænd] -

Lesson 8 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson, you will learn to give information about where you live and work. Today Martin Learner sees an accident. He and others have to give their addresses to a policeman.

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 8, Part 1:

Cast: Look out! Did you see that? Stand back. What happened? Is anyone hurt? Where did he come from?

Policeman: All right, all right. Stand back. Move. Stand back.

Alex: Who are you?

Policeman: I'm a policeman. Did you see the accident?

Cast: Yes. I did. Sure. I was standing right here. Well, I think so. It happened so fast.

Policeman: I want your names and addresses. OK. Who are you?

Paula: I am Paula Roberts.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Paula: I live at fifty-five Georgia Street.

Policeman: Where do you work?

Paula: I work at Jenson's.

Policeman: What is the address?

Paula: Three-oh-seven California Street.

Policeman: Thanks. OK. Who are you?

Martin: I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Martin: I live in Baltimore ([bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)]).

Policeman: Where do you live in Baltimore?

Martin: I live at fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street.

Policeman: OK. Who are you?

Nancy: I'm Nancy Kim.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Nancy: I live at sixteen Carter Street.

Policeman: Where do you work?

Nancy: I work at the Arizona Hotel.

Policeman: What is the address?

Nancy: The address is ten-eighty Arizona Street.

Policeman: Good. Now. Who are you?

Alex: I'm Alexander Macrakis.

Policeman: Please spell ([spel] - произносить по буквам) it for me.

Alex: M-A-C-R-A-K-I-S.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Alex: I live in Chicago ([ʃi'ka:gəʊ]).

Policeman: Where do you live in Chicago?

Alex: I live at nine-three-eight North Florida Street.

Policeman: Where do you work?

Alex: I'm a student.

Policeman: Where are you a student?

Alex: At the Mills Institute of Technology ([tek'nɒlədʒi] - технология).

Let's listen to the part of this conversation again:

Policeman: Where do you live?

Paula: I live at fifty-five Georgia Street.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Martin: I live at fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Nancy: I live at sixteen Carter Street.

Policeman: Where do you live?

Alex: I live at nine-three-eight North Florida Street.

Now, can you say it? Try to answer the question. Give the number of your building and the street name, or your apartment number, or other address:

Policeman: Where do you live?


Paula: I live at fifty-five Georgia Street.

Policeman: Where do you live?


Martin: I live at fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street.

Policeman: Where do you live?


Questions asking "Where do you live" are usually answered with an address, for example "At nine-three-eight North Florida Street" or give the name of a city, town, state, for example "In Chicago. In New England. In Florida".

Lieutenant ([lef'tenənt or lu:'tenənt] - лейтенант): Good afternoon, officer.

Policeman: Good afternoon, Lieutenant.

Lieutenant: Who are these people?

Policeman: I have names and addresses, Lieutenant.

Lieutenant: I want to ask some questions. Excuse me, where are you from?

Alex: I'm from Chicago.

Lieutenant: What do you do?

Alex: I'm a student.

Lieutenant: OK. Who are you?

Nancy: I'm Nancy Kim.

Lieutenant: Where do you live?

Nancy: I live at sixteen Carter Street.

Lieutenant: You, please. Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Baltimore.

Policeman: Look out.

Lieutenant: OK, OK. Move along.

Policeman: Step aside. Watch your step.

In the next part of the lesson Martin meets other witnesses (['witnəsis] - свидетели):

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter. I want to ask you some questions.

Alex: OK.

Martin: You're a student?

Alex: Yes, I'm a student. I'm Alexander Macrakis.

Martin: Alexander Macrakis. Please write it for me.

Alex: OK.

Martin: Where are you from?

Alex: I'm from Chicago.

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner. Who are you?

Nancy: Hi. I'm Nancy Kim.

Martin: Where do you live?

Nancy: I live at sixteen Carter Street. Where do you live?

Martin: I live in Baltimore. This is Alexander Macrakis.

Nancy: Hi. I'm Nancy. What do you do?

Alex: Hi, Nancy. I'm a student. I'm from Chicago.

Paula: Excuse me, where is a telephone?

Martin: Sorry. I don't know. I'm from Baltimore.

Alex: I don't know. I'm from Chicago.

Nancy: Hi. I'm Nancy Kim.

Paula: Hello. Where is a telephone?

Nancy: Go straight ahead. Turn left on Michigan Street. There is a telephone at the coffee shop.

Paula: Thanks. By the way, I'm Paula Roberts.

Nancy: He's Martin.

Martin: Martin Learner.

Paula: What do you do?

Martin: I'm a reporter. What do you do?

Paula: I'm a lawyer (['lɔ:jə(r)] - адвокат).

Martin: Where are you from?

Paula: Here. I live here.

Nancy: I live here too. He lives in Chicago. And he lives in Baltimore.

Nancy: Let's see. You're Alexander. You're Nancy. And you're Martin.

Martin: Wonderful.

Paula: But the telephone. Where is the telephone?

Nancy: Go straight ahead. Turn left on Michigan Street. Then go to the coffee shop.

Paula: Thank you very much. Goodbye.

ALL: Goodbye, bye, bye-bye.

Let's listen to some questions and answers, then you try to answer the questions:

Martin: Where do you live?

Nancy: I live at sixteen Carter Street.

Martin: Where do you live?

Alex: I live at nine-three-eight North Florida Street.

Martin: Where do you live?

Paula: I live at fifty-five Georgia Street.

Now you try to answer:

Martin: I live at fourteen-twenty-seven Grant Street. Where do you live?


Paula: I live at fifty-five Georgia Street. Where do you live?


Let's listen to another part of the conversation:

Policeman: Who are you?

Paula: I'm Paula Roberts.

Policeman: Who are you?

Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

Policeman: Who are you?

Nancy: I'm Nancy Kim.

Policeman: Who are you?

Alex: I'm Alexander Macrakis.

Can you answer the question?

Policeman: Who are you?

You: (I am "YOUR NAME".)

Martin: I'm Martin Learner. Who are you?

You: (I am "YOUR NAME".)

Nancy: I'm Nancy Kim. Who are you?

You: (I am "YOUR NAME".)

Alex: I'm Alexander Macrakis. Who are you?

You: (I am "YOUR NAME".)

Policeman: Thank you for your time.

Cast: That's all right. No trouble. Any time. Glad to help. Don't mention ([menʃn] - упоминать) it.

Martin: Well, goodbye, Alexander. Goodbye, Nancy.

Alex: Goodbye, Mr. Learner.

Nancy: Bye, Martin.

Alex: Nancy.

Nancy: Yes.

Alex: Please call me Alex.

Nancy: OK, Alex.

Alex: Where do you work, Nancy?

Nancy: I work at the Arizona Hotel.

Alex: Where is the Arizona Hotel?

Nancy: Straight ahead. Do you see that tall glass building? That's the Arizona Hotel.

Alex: What do you do?

Nancy: I'm an accountant ([ə'kaʊntənt] - бухгалтер). What are you studying?

Alex: I'm studying computers.

Nancy: That's wonderful. I like computers.

Alex: Do you like coffee?

Nancy: Yes, I like coffee. I'm going to go to work. Let's have coffee together ...

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

secretary - секретарь (['sekrətri])
arrange - организовывать, устраивать ([ə'reindʒ])
direction - направление ([də'rekʃn])
agreement - соглашение ([ə'gri:mənt])
plan - планировать ([plæn])
race - гонка, раса ([reis])
honourable - почетный, уважаемый (['ɒnərəbl])
thankful - благодарный (['θæŋkfəl])
gift - подарок, дарить ([gift])
thankfulness - благодарность (['θæŋkfəlnəs])
confident - уверенный, убежденный (['kɒnfidənt])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

information - информация ([infə(r)'meiʃn])
mostly - главным образом, в основном (['məʊstli])
style - стиль ([stail])
single - одинокий, единственный (['siŋgl])
bone - кость ([bəʊn])
magazine - журнал ([mægə'zi:n])
gather - собрать, собраться (['gæðə(r)])
deserve - заслуживать ([di'zε:(r)v])
fashion - мода ([fæʃn])

The new verbs of this lesson are deserve and gather. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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