English for All

Lesson 76: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 7)
  • Lesson 7 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

agreement1 [ə'gri:mənt] - соглашение
direction [də'rekʃn] - направление
gift2 [gift] - подарок, дарить
race3 [reis] - гонка, раса
secretary4 ['sekrətri] - секретарь
thankfulness1 ['θæŋkfəlnəs] - благодарность
arrange5 [ə'reindʒ] - организовывать, устраивать
plan6 [plæn] - планировать
confident7 ['kɒnfidənt] - уверенный, убежденный
honourable1 ['ɒnərəbl] - почетный, уважаемый
thankful1 ['θæŋkfəl] - благодарный

1 - в этом уроке мы выучим еще несколько частей речи, образованных от ранее изученных слов:

  • Существительное agreement образовано от глагола agree с помощью суффикса -ment.

  • Прилагательное thankful образовано от глагола thank с помощью суффикса -full.

  • Существительное thankfulness образовано от уже образованного прилагательного thankful с помощью суффикса -ness.

  • Прилагательное honourable образовано от существительного honour с помощью суффикса -able. Прилагательное, как и существительное меняет свое написание и произношение американскими носителями языка: honorable ['a:nərəbl].

2 - существительное gift является синонимом изученного ранее существительного present в значение "подарок". Они имеют разное происхождение: gift от германского глагола give и present от французского глагола present. Слово gift может также использоваться в значение "дар, талант" человека:

He always had the gift to make money. - Он всегда имел дар делать деньги.

3 - порой удивительно, как в английском языке одно слово может иметь такие непохожие друг на друга значения. В этом уроке изучим слово race, которое значит "раса" (группа людей, которые имеют физиологические различия) и "гонки" (соревнование в скорости между людьми, животными или машинами).

4 - при произношение существительного secretary, американские носители языка произносят гласную a: ['sekrəteri].

5 - глагол arrange означает "организовывать, обустраивать" что-то в каком то порядке или на будущее. Часто этот глагол стоит в выражение arrange for something to be done:

I arranged for their flat to be repaired. - Я организовал, чтобы их квартила была отремонтирована.

6 - слово plan уже встречалась в наших текстах в роли не только существительного, но и глагола. После него, в значение глагола, может стоять как герундий с предлогом on, так и инфинитив:

We planned on buying/to buy a new fridge. - Мы планировали покупать новый холодильник.

7 - прилагательное confident очень похоже по значению на изученные ранее sure, certain, и они являются взаимозаменяемыми после глагола to be:

He was confident/sure/certain. - Он был уверенным.

Но confident может стоять перед существительным в значение "уверенный, убежденный" в отличие от других двух прилагательных:

The confident man asked to show the most expensive car. - Уверенный мужчина попросил показать самый дорогой автомобиль.

Look at these new words in sentences:

I don't need your thankfulness.
Мне не нужна твоя благодарность.
The confident leaders of these races will certainly arrange so necessary agreement.
Уверенные лидеры этих рас определенно организуют так необходимое соглашение.
They chose the opposite direction.
Они выбрали противоположное направление.
This race always gifts something valuable during our meetings.
Эта раса дарит всегда что-то ценное в течение наших встреч.
The secretary was proud to work for such an honourable chief.
Секретарь гордился работать на такого уважаемого начальника.
Tourists asked me to show them the direction to the museum.
Туристы попросили меня показать им направление к музею.
He planned to arrange our camping.
Он планировал устроить наш кемпинг.
Children get a lot of gifts on Christmas.
Дети получают много подарков на Рождество.
The government didn't let to arrange a race in the centre of the city.
Правительство не позволило организовать гонки в центре города.
The thankful secretary gave me a small gift for my help to him with those papers.
Благодарный секретарь дал мне небольшой подарок за мою помощь ему с теми бумагами.
All directions led us to the park.
Все направления вели нас к парку.
We didn't plan to visit our honourable neighbours.
Мы не планировали посетить наших почитаемых соседей.
He showed his thankfulness with the perfect gift.
Он показал свою благодарность отличным подарком.
I was confident they would find a worthy ageement.
Я был уверенным, что они найдут достойное соглашение.
Don't be shy to ask a direction in an unknown city.
Не стесняйтесь спрашивать направление в неизвестном городе.
Their race have lost the war.
Их раса проиграла войну.
The confident secretary planned on taking off a couple of days.
Уверенный секретарь планировал взять пару дней выходных.
His thankful chief gave it to him.
Его благодарный начальник дал это ему.
Our family arranged a small dinner in the yard.
Наша семья организовала небольшой ужин во дворе.
Why did your race look very confident at the beginning of the race?
Почему твоя раса вглядела очень уверенной в начале гонок?
This honourable man has a gift to bring happiness.
Этот уважаемый человек имеет дар приносить счастье.

Now you can continue reading the text.

Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 7)

Chapter 19: Tom Tells the Truth

Tom arrived at home feeling very sad, and his aunt's first words made him feel no better.

"Tom, I ought to beat you!"

"Aunt Polly, what have I done?"

"I went to see Mrs. Harper to tell her about your dream. Joe had already told her that you were here that night. Tom, I do not know what to think of a boy like you. I believed your story of your dream. I expected her to believe it. Why did you let me be such a fool?"

"Aunt Polly, I wish I had not done it. I did not think."

"Oh, child, you never think. You never think of anything but yourself. You could think enough to come here and laugh at our troubles. You could think to tell that story of a dream. But you could not think to save us from suffering."

"Aunt Polly, I know that it was bad. But I did not plan to be bad. And I did not come here that night to laugh at you. I came to tell you that we were not drowned. I did not want you to be sad."

"Tom, I would be thankful to believe that. But I doubt that you had such a thought."

"Yes, I did, I did. It is the truth. I wanted to save you from being sad."

"Then why did you not tell me, child?"

"You began talking of Sunday and all the people praying for us in the church. And I began thinking about going there on Sunday. And I put my letter in my pocket and went away."

"What letter?"

"The letter to tell you that we were pirates. I wish now that you had opened your eyes when I kissed you."

"Did you kiss me, Tom? Are you sure?"

"Yes, I did, Aunt."

"Why did you kiss me?"

"Because I loved you and you were weeping in your sleep and I was sorry."

The words sounded like the truth. The old lady said, "Kiss me again, Tom! And then go to school."

When he was gone, she looked at his little coat. In the pocket, she found his piece of wood with the writing on it. She read the words, with tears falling from her eyes. Then she said, "Now I could forget anything bad that the boy does. I could forget a million bad things."

Chapter 20: Becky Has a Problem

Tom was happy again. He started walking to school, and soon saw Becky Thatcher, also going toward the school. Quickly he ran to her and said:

"I am sorry I acted as I did this morning, Becky. I won't ever be like that again. Please let us be friends."

The girl stopped and looked into his face. "Go away, Mr. Thomas Sawyer. I will never speak to you again."

Then she started walking again. Tom was so surprised that he could think of nothing to say. And he was filled with anger. If she were a boy, he knew that he would fight her.

Becky was also full of anger. She was thinking of the pleasure of watching the teacher beat Tom for destroying a page in his book.

She did not know that she would soon have trouble also!

The teacher had a book that he was studying. Every day he would read some pages when he was not busy. Every boy and girl in the school wondered about this book, but none had ever seen its pages. Now, as Becky passed the teacher's table, she saw the book. She opened it and began to look at it.

Then Tom appeared at the door. Becky hurried to close the book. Her hand caught the page, and suddenly, it was in two pieces. Becky began to weep.

"You are bad, Tom Sawyer, to come and watch me! And now you will tell the teacher, and he will beat me, and what shall I do! I have never been beaten in school. But I know what is going to happen to you. You wait and you will see!" Then, weeping, she ran outside.

Tom said to himself: "What a fool a girl is! What is a beating in school? That is nothing. And I will not tell who opened the book. The teacher will ask who did it. He will call each name. And when he says the right one, he won't need an answer. He will see the answer in her face."

School began, and soon Tom's book was discovered. He said that he had not destroyed the page, but the teacher did not believe him. Tom had his beating. Becky watched, trying to feel happy about this. But she almost stood up to tell the truth about Alfred Temple.

An hour passed. The boys and girls were all busy with their books. The teacher opened his book. Tom looked at Becky. He had seen small and hunted animals in the forest. Now Becky seemed like one of them. He wished that he could help her. But what could he do?

The next moment the teacher stood before the school. Every eye turned away from his. All the boys and girls were afraid of him. He spoke:

"Who did this to my book?"

There was not a sound.

"Benjamin Rogers?"

"No."

"Joe Harper?"

"No."

"Amy Lawrence?"

"No."

"Gracie Miller?"

"No."

The next name was Becky Thatcher. Tom was shaking from head to foot. He saw her face, white with fear.

"Rebecca Thatcher, look at me! Did you do this to my book?"

Tom jumped to his feet and shouted, "I did it!"

All looked at him. They could not believe what they had heard. This was madness.

Tom stepped forward to take his beating. The surprise, the thankfulness, the love shining from Becky's eyes seemed pay enough for a hundred beatings.

Chapter 21: Old Muff's Friend

Summer had come. For several months there would be no school.

Tom discovered that the days were too long. He did not have enough to do.

He decided to make a record of everything that happened. But nothing happened during three days. He decided that a record would be of no value.

Becky Thatcher had gone away. During the summer she was living in another town with her father and her mother. The thought of the fearful killing in the graveyard was always in Tom's mind. It was like a pain. It would not go away. Then Tom became sick.

For two long weeks Tom remained in bed without knowing what was happening in the village. He was very ill. He was interested in nothing. Then he seemed to be better. But after a day he was ill again. He was in bed for three more weeks.

In the warm, sleepy village something began to happen. A judge was coming to listen to the story of the killing in the graveyard. He would decide what to do about Muff Potter.

Every person in the village talked of this. Tom could not escape from it. Every word made his heart beat faster. He was always afraid when people talked to him about it.

He took Huck to a lonely place. He wanted to be sure that Huck had not told the story.

"Huck, have you told about that?"

"About what?"

"You know what."

"Oh. No, I have not."

"Never a word?"

"Never a word. Why do you ask?"

"I was afraid."

"Tom Sawyer, we would not live two days if that story was told. You know that."

"Huck, could any person make you tell?"

"If I wanted that Indian Joe to drown me, they could make me tell."

"Good! I think that we are safe if we do not talk. But we should make another agreement. It will be more sure."

They made another agreement, as before, signed in blood.

"What is the talk that you hear, Huck?"

"Talk? It is all Muff Potter, Muff Potter, Muff Potter. It makes me want to go where no one can see me."

"I hear the same talk. They are going to hang him. Do you feel sorry for him sometimes?"

"Almost always - almost always. He has never done anything to hurt any person. He only fishes to get some money so that he can get drunk. He is really good. Once he gave me a fish when he really did not have enough for himself. And he helped me at other times when I needed help."

"He helped me, also, Huck. He helped me to catch fish. I wish that I could get him out of jail."

"We can't get him out, Tom. And if we did, they would catch him again."

"Yes. But I do not like to hear what they say. For he never did that."

"And I do not like it either, Tom."

The boys talked for a long time, but it did not make them happy. As night came, they were near the little jail. Perhaps they hoped that something good might happen. But nothing happened.

They went to the window and gave Potter some tobacco. They had done this before.

He was always very thankful for their gifts, and his thanks always hurt them. This time the hurt went deeper when Potter said:

"You've been good to me, boys. Better than the others in this town. And I won't forget, I won't. Often I say to myself, «I was good to all the boys. I showed them where the good fishing was. I was their friend when I could be a friend. And now they forget old Muff in his trouble. But Tom does not forget, and Huck does not - they do not forget him,» I say, «and I won't forget them.» But, boys, I did a fearful thing. I was drunk. That is the only way that I can explain it. Now I must hang for it, and that is right. It is best, also. I hope that it is. But we won't talk about that. I won't make you feel sad. You've been my friends."

"But what I want to say is this. Never get drunk. Then you won't ever be where I am now."

"Stand where I can see you. It is a pleasure to see friendly faces when a man is in trouble like this. You are the only ones who come here. Good friendly faces - good friendly faces. Stand on each other's shoulders and let me touch your faces. Good! Let me touch your hands, also. Little hands, and weak, but they could have helped Muff Potter. And they would help him more if they could."

Tom went home feeling very, very sad. His dreams that night were full of fearful things. During the next two days, he went to the town meetinghouse. The judge was there, listening to the story of the killing. Tom wished to go into the meetinghouse to hear what was happening but he forced himself to stay outside.

Huck was having the same experience.

They were careful not to meet each other. They would go away from the meetinghouse, but soon they would return. Tom listened when people came out. The news was always bad. At the end of the second day people said that Indian Joe's story never changed. There was no doubt what the judge would decide.

Tom was out late that night, and he entered the house through the window. He could not sleep for several hours.

All the people in the village went to the meetinghouse the next morning. This was to be the important day. Potter, who appeared to have no hope, was brought in. All eyes were turned to him. And Indian Joe was there, too. Then the judge arrived.

Now a man was asked to tell what he knew about the killing. He said that he had found Muff Potter washing his hands in a stream. It was very early on the morning after the killing.

Another man was asked to tell his story. He told about finding the knife near the doctor's body.

Then a second man spoke about the knife. He knew that it belonged to Potter.

A man who had studied law sat beside Muff Potter. He was there to help Potter. But he asked no questions as these men told their stories. It seemed strange. Was he not trying to prove that Potter had not killed the doctor?

More men told their stories. And the man beside Potter asked them no questions.

After a while, all the stories against Potter had been told. Then the man beside Potter stood up. He spoke to the judge:

"Your Honor, we planned to prove that Muff Potter was drunk that night. We planned to prove that he did not know what he was doing. But we have changed our plans. We wish to ask Thomas Sawyer some questions."

Surprise appeared on every face, including Potter's. Every eye was watching Tom. He stood up and walked forward. He looked very wild because he was deeply afraid.

The questions began.

"Thomas Sawyer, where were you on the night of the killing at about the hour of twelve?"

Tom looked at Indian Joe, and he could not speak. The people listened, but the words did not come. After a few moments, however, the boy had more strength. Some of the people could hear as he said:

"In the graveyard!"

"Louder, please. Do not be afraid. You were -"

"In the graveyard." A cold smile appeared on Indian Joe's face. Then it was gone.

"Were you near Hoss Williams's grave?"

"Yes."

"Louder, please. How near were you?"

"As near as I am to you."

"Could you be seen?"

"No. I was behind the trees at the edge of the grave."

"Was another person with you?"

"Yes. I went there with -"

"That is enough. We will call him when we need him. Did you carry something there?"

Tom did not answer.

"Speak, my boy. The truth is always honorable. What did you carry there?"

"Only a-a-dead cat."

There was a little laughing. The judge ordered it to stop.

"We plan to show the bones of that cat. Now, my boy, tell us everything that happened - tell it as you wish, but tell it all and do not be afraid."

Tom began slowly. Then his words came more and more easily. Every eye looked at him. With open lips the people listened to his words, forgetting everything but his story.

Now he came to the end. Interest became greater and greater.

"- and as the doctor hit Muff Potter with the board and Muff Potter fell, Indian Joe jumped with the knife and -"

Indian Joe jumped toward a window, striking all who tried to hold him. In a moment he was gone.

Chapter 22: Days of Delight and Nights of Fear

Tom was famous once again. The old people loved him and the young people wished that they were like him. His name appeared in the village newspaper. There were people who believed that he might some day become President of the United States if he escaped hanging.

Now all were kind to Muff Potter, forgetting that they had not been kind before.

Tom's days were days of joy, but his nights were filled with fear. Indian Joe was in all his dreams.

Poor Huck felt the same. His name had not been called in the meetinghouse. Because Indian Joe had run away, Huck's story was not needed. But Huck was afraid that his part in the story might be told. Huck no longer trusted any human being, because Tom had broken their agreement.

Every day, Muff Potter's thanks made Tom glad that he had told his story. Every night he wished that he had not opened his mouth.

Sometimes Tom was afraid that Indian Joe would never be caught. At other times he was afraid that Indian Joe would be caught. He felt sure that he never could be safe again until Indian Joe was dead and he had seen the dead body.

Indian Joe had not been found.

The slow days passed. With each day Tom became a little less afraid.










madness ['mædnəs] -
безумие







































Indian ['indiən] -
Индеец























tobacco [tə'bækəʊ] -
табак





















experience [ik'spiəriəns] -
опыт
_______________________________________________

Lesson 7 from radio station "VOA"

In the next English USA lesson you will learn how to ask where people are from and tell others where you are from. In this lesson, Martin Learner interviews (['intə(r)vju:z] - берет интервью) Stefan Nowak in a coffee shop. You will learn to ask where someone is from.

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 7, Part 1.

Martin: Hi, Stefan. Please, sit down.

Stefan: Hello, Mr. Learner.

Martin: Oh, please call me Martin. OK?

Stefan: Martin. OK.

Waitress: Morning. What're you gonna have?

Martin: Two coffees, please.

Waitress: That's it? OK.

Stefan: What did she say?

Martin: She said, What are you going to have? What're you gonna have? What are you going to have?

Stefan: Ah. What are you going to have? Sometimes, I do not understand waiters?

Martin: Sometimes, I don't understand!

Waitress: Here you are. Two coffees.

Martin: Thanks. She said, Here you are.

Stefan: I understand.

Martin: Stefan, I am writing a news report. It's going to be about students in the United States, and I want to write about you.

Stefan: You are going to write about me? OK.

Martin: Good. May I record you on this tape ([teip] - ленточный) recorder?

Stefan: Yes, sure.

Martin: First, tell me your FULL name.

Stefan: My name is Stefan Nowak.

Martin: I want to get it right. Please spell ([spel] - произносить по буквам) it for me.

Stefan: S-T-E-F-A-N N-O-W-A-K.

Martin: Where are you from?

Stefan: I am from Poland (['pəʊlənd] - Польша).

Martin: I know you're from Poland. What city are you from? Warsaw (['wɔ:(r)sɔ:] - Варшава)?

Stefan: No, I'm not from Warsaw. I am from Cracow (['krækəʊ] - Краков). Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Chicago ([ʃi'ka:gəʊ]). But I live in Baltimore ([bɔ:ltimɔ:(r)]) now.

Stefan: I lived in Warsaw too.

Martin: Before I lived in Baltimore and I lived in many cities. I lived in Washington (['wɒʃiŋtən]), San Francisco ([sæn frən'si:skəʊ]), Paris (['pæris]) and Berlin (['bε:(r)lin]).

Stefan: That's many places!

Martin: Well, I write news stories and reports. Reporters go where there is news.

Let's listen to the part of this conversation again:

Martin: Where are you from?

Stefan: I'm from Poland.

Martin: What city are you from?

Stefan: I'm from Cracow. Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Chicago.

Now, can you say it? Try to answer the questions:

Martin: I'm from Chicago. Where are you from?

You: (I am from "NAME YOUR CITY".)

Stefan: I'm from Cracow. Where are you from?

You: (I am from "NAME YOUR CITY".)

Questions beginning with "where" and ending with "from" are answered by naming a place - a country, a state, or a city. Listen:

Martin: Where are you from?

Stefan: I'm from Poland.

Martin: Where?

Stefan: Poland. Where are you from?

Martin: I live in Baltimore now. But I'm from Chicago.

Stefan: I live in Baltimore now too.

Can you answer the questions?

Martin: I live in Baltimore now. Where do you live?

You: (I live in "NAME YOUR CITY".)

Stefan: I live in Baltimore too. Where do you live?

You: (I live in "NAME YOUR CITY".)

Waitress: More coffee?

Martin: Yes, please.

Stefan: Thank you. Excuse me, where are you from?

Waitress: Here.

Stefan: Where?

Waitress: Here. I'm from Baltimore. Where're you from?

Stefan: I live in Baltimore.

Waitress: I lived in Florida ['flɒridə]) last year. I lived in California ([kæli'fɔ:(r)niə]). I lived in Texas (['teksəs]).

Waitress: I lived in Ohio (əʊ'haiəʊ), New York ([nju: jɔ:(r)k]) and Washington.

In the second part of the lesson, Martin and Stefan are in the coffee shop. Martin finds out Stefan is a student studying health administration ([ədmini'streiʃən] - администрация) and he meets Stefan's friend Susan.

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 7, Part 2:

Martin: OK, Stefan. You live in Baltimore now. What do you do in Baltimore?

Stefan: I am a student.

Martin: Where?

Stefan: At Johns Hopkins University ([ju:ni'vε:(r)səti] - университет). I am studying health administration.

Martin: That's very interesting.

Waitress: More coffee?

Stefan: No, thank you.

Martin: No, thanks. Let's listen to our tape Stefan.

Martin: There we are.

Stefan: My name is Stefan Nowak.

Martin: I want to get it right. Please spell it for me.

Stefan: S-T-E-F-A-N N-O-W-A-K.

Martin: Where are you from?

Stefan: I am from Poland.

Martin: I know you're from Poland. What city are you from? Warsaw?

Stefan: No, I'm not from Warsaw. I'm from Cracow. Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Chicago.

Martin: That sounds good.

Let's listen to the part of this conversation again, then you try to answer the questions:

Stefan: I'm from Poland. Where are you from?

Martin: I'm from Chicago. What city are you from?

Stefan: I'm from Cracow.

Now you try to answer:

Martin: I'm from Chicago. Where are you from?

You: (I am from "NAME YOUR CITY".)

Stefan: I'm from Cracow. Where are you from?

You: (I am from "NAME YOUR CITY".)

Let's listen again:

Martin: I live in Baltimore now.

Stefan: I live in Baltimore too.

Waitress: I live in Baltimore. I lived in Florida last year.

Martin: I lived in Berlin.

Stefan: I lived in Warsaw.

In English, one important way to talk about events in the past is to change the endings of words. "I live in Baltimore now" "I lived in Warsaw last year." Live → Lived. "I live" means I live in a place now, today, in the present time. "I lived" means I lived in a place some time in the past.

Martin: Let's go on.

Martin: You live in Baltimore. You're a student at Johns Hopkins University. Where did you live last year?

Stefan: I lived in Warsaw last year. I worked in Warsaw for two years.

Martin: What did you do?

Stefan: I worked in a hospital. I worked in the office.

Martin: What did you do in the office?

Stefan: There's my friend Susan. Susan! Sorry, Martin. I want you to meet Susan.

Susan: Good morning.

Martin: Good morning. I'm Martin Learner.

Susan: Hello. I'm Susan Wolf.

Stefan: Martin is a reporter. He is writing a story about me.

Susan: Really! Why?

Stefan: Because I'm from Poland.

Martin: And he's a student. He's studying at the university. Where are you from, Susan?

Susan: I'm from Ohio.

Martin: What do you do?

Susan: I'm a student too.

Martin: What do you study?

Susan: I study music. I'm a musician ([['mju:'ziʃn] - музыкант)

Martin: Wonderful! Do you live in Baltimore?

Susan: I live in Baltimore now. I lived in Washington last year.

Waitress: What're you gonna have?

Susan: What?

Stefan: She said, What are you going to have?

Susan: Nothing, thank you. I'm going to study now. Goodbye, Mr. Learner. Bye, Stefan.

Martin: Goodbye.

Stefan: Goodbye, Susan.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

baby - ребенок (['beibi])
sofa - диван, софа (['səʊfə])
adult - взрослый (['ædʌlt])
advice - совет ([əd'vais])
couch - диван ([kaʊtʃ])
heaviness - тяжесть (['hevinəs])
kid - ребенок ([kid])
officer - сотрудник, офицер (['ɒfisə(r)])
roll - рулон, катиться ([rəʊl])
cloth - ткань, полотно ([klɒθ])
picnic - пикник (['piknik])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

gift - подарок, дарить ([gift])
confident - уверенный, убежденный (['kɒnfidənt])
thankfulness - благодарность (['θæŋkfəlnəs])
plan - планировать ([plæn])
race - гонка, раса ([reis])
arrange - организовывать, устраивать ([ə'reindʒ])
agreement - соглашение ([ə'gri:mənt])
thankful - благодарный (['θæŋkfəl])
secretary - секретарь (['sekrətri])
honourable - почетный, уважаемый (['ɒnərəbl])
direction - направление ([də'rekʃn])

The new verbs of this lesson are arrange, gift and plan. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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