English for All

Lesson 75: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 6)
  • Lesson 6 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

advice1 [əd'vais] - совет
baby2 ['beibi] - ребенок
cloth3 [klɒθ] - ткань, полотно
couch4 [kaʊtʃ] - диван
heaviness5 ['hevinəs] - тяжесть
kid2 [kid] - ребенок
officer6 ['ɒfisə(r)] - сотрудник, офицер
picnic7 ['piknik] - пикник
roll8 [rəʊl] - рулон, катиться
sofa4 ['səʊfə] - диван, софа
adult ['ædʌlt] - взрослый

1 - существительное advice, как и изученные ранее news, money, не может стоять во множественном числе (не носители языка часто допускают ошибку, говоря advices). То есть к нему не добавляется окончание -s, и после него ставится форма глагола be в единственном числе (is, was):

He got a lot of advise. - Он получил много советов.

2 - слова baby и kid похожи на изученное ранее child. Child относится к любому возврасту человека (для родителей их дети всегда остаются детьми). Kid является синонимом child, но более неформальным. Baby - это несамостоятельный child, он еще не можит сам себя обслуживать (еда, туалет). Обычно baby считается child до 6 лет.

3 - обратите внимание на отличие в произношение последнего звука существительного этого урока cloth и похожего на него существительного clothes [kləʊðz].

4 - существительные couch и sofa являются синонимами, но в повседневной жизни носители языка используют в основном couch. И не путайте слово couch с изученным ранее coach ([kəʊtʃ]).

5 - существительное heaviness образовано от известного прилагательного heavy с помощью суффикса -ness. В предложение оно используется в тех же случаях, что и прилагательное: the heaviness of your weight, food (для пищеварение), loss, in the air и другое.

6 - основным значением существительного officer является должность в армейских подразделениях. Но оно также может значить гражданскую должность по отношению к руководителю различных отделений: the government officer, the tax officer.

7 - перед существительным picnic могут стоять необычные предлоги:

  • Если говорится, что кто-то идет "на" пикник, то перед picnic ставится предлоги on/for:

  • We go on/for a picnic every summer weekend. - Мы ходим на пикник каждый летний выходной.
  • Если говорится, что кто-то находится "на" пикнике, то после глагола be ставится предлог at:

  • We were at a picnic. - Мы были на пикнике.

8 - существительное roll означает любой объект, который образован намоткой какого-либо материала в цилиндрическую форму, то есть переводится как русское "рулон". Обратите внимание на чтение гласной o как в открытом слоге [əʊ].

Глагол roll означает движение объекта, путем перекатывания его вокруг своей оси. Он соответствует фразовому глаголу turn over. И, так как он передает движение, то с ним используются соответствующие предлоги:

The ball rolled to me. - Мяч катился ко мне.

Look at these new words in sentences:

Why did you tell my kid that he was an adult baby?
Почему ты сказал моему ребенке, что он взрослый дитя?
The couch broke down because of our heaviness.
Диван сломался из-за нашей тяжести.
The officer gave me some valuable advice.
Офицер дал мне ценный совет.
Our kids were going on a picnic.
Наши дети собирались на пикник.
The army officer isn't afraid anything.
Армейский офицер не боится ничего.
The mother with her baby lay on the soft sofa.
Мать с ее ребенком лежали на мягком диване.
Your adult kids can already manage with it without you.
Твои взрослые дети могут уже справится с этим без тебя.
The baby spoilt the cloth which was bought for his new walking suit.
Ребенок испортил ткань, которая была куплена для его прогулочного костюма.
Her heaviness didn't let her to even rise.
Ее тяжесть не позволило ей даже подняться.
I threw a roll of cloth on the couch.
Я бросил рулон ткани на диван.
His kids try to visit him at every possiple moment.
Его дети стараются посещать его в каждый возможный момент.
My oldest kid rolled the youngest one on the floor like a toy.
Мой старший ребенок катал младшего на полу как игрушку.
Every advice of this officer helps somebody.
Каждый совет этого офицера помогает кому-то.
You can choose any cloth for your future sofa in our shop.
Вы можете выбрать любую ткань для своего будующего дивана в нашем магазине.
I think you shoudn't roll these boxes.
Я думаю тебе не стоит катать эти коробки.
These officers support the order at our picnic.
Эти офицеры поддерживают порядок на нашем пикнике.
Your kids burnt my sofa.
Твои детьи сожгли мой диван.
The heaviness of this roll forced us to order a truck.
Тяжесть этого рулона заставила нас заказать грузовик.
This kid waits for your advice.
Этот ребенок ждет твоего совета.
Adult men can't understand the problems of kids because they forgot what it is like to be them.
Взрослые люди не могут понять проблемы детей, потому что они забыли как это быть ими.

Now read the other part of the text.

Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 6)

Chapter 16: A Night Surprise

The boys played in the water and on the shore. But the next day Joe was very sad. Would he ever be happy again? It did not seem possible. Huck was also sad. Tom was not happy, but he tried to seem happy. He had something interesting to tell them, but he was not yet ready to speak. However, if they did not feel better soon, he would be forced to tell it.

He said, trying to seem happy, "I think there have been pirates on this island before. How would you like to find an old box full of money? We should go and hunt for it."

But the other boys were not interested.

Joe said, "Boys, I want to go home. It is very lonely here."

"Oh, no, Joe. You will feel better soon," said Tom. "Think of the good fishing here."

"I am not interested in fishing. I want to go home."

"But, Joe, this is the best swimming place."

"I do not want to swim. I want to go home."

"Baby! You want to see your mother."

"Yes, I do want to see my mother. And you would want to see your mother if you had a mother. I am not a baby."

"But you like it here, Huck? You want to stay? You and I will stay?"

Huck said, "Y-e-s." He did not seem very sure.

"Let Joe go if he wants to go," Tom said. "We do not need him."

Joe began to walk into the water to start swimming toward the shore where the village was.

Tom looked at Huck. Huck looked away. Then Huck said, "I want to go, Tom. We can go, Tom, can't we?"

"I won't! You can go. But I am going to stay."

Huck started to walk sadly away. Tom felt a strong desire to follow. He hoped that they would stop, but they went slowly forward. Suddenly, Tom knew that it had become very lonely and quiet.

He ran after the other boys, shouting, "Wait! Wait! I want to tell you something."

They stopped and turned, and he began walking into the water toward them. They listened to him without an answering word or smile. But after a while, they began to understand. Then they shouted with joy. They said that he should have told them his plan sooner.

That night, after eating, Tom wanted to learn to smoke. Joe wanted to try, also. With Huck's help, they began. Tom said, "This is easy. I could learn long ago."

"This is nothing," said Joe. "I could smoke all day. I do not feel sick."

Tom said, "I wish that the other boys could see us now. Listen. We won't tell them. And then some time when they are with us, I will say, "Joe, I want to smoke." And you will say, "My tobacco is not very good." And I will say, "It does not need to be good if it is strong enough." And then we'll both start smoking and surprise them."

"That will be good, Tom! I wish we could do it now!"

"And we will tell them that we learned to smoke when we were pirates. And they will wish that they had been here!"

The talk continued. But after a little time, there was less talk. Joe said, "I've lost my knife. I am going to find it."

Tom said, "Let me help you. You go that way and I will go this way. No, do not come, Huck. We can find it."

Huck sat down again and waited an hour. Then he was lonely, and he went to find his friends. Both were very white, both were asleep. But he knew that what had troubled them was gone now.

That night they did not talk much. When Huck began to smoke, they said no, that something they had eaten made them feel a little sick.

In the middle of the night, Joe opened his eyes and called to the other boys. There was a strange heaviness in the air, and it made them all afraid. The night was very hot, but they moved near to each other and near to the fire. Sitting like that, they waited.

A sudden light filled the sky. It turned night into day, and then it was gone. A fearful noise rolled across the sky and slowly ended far away. A breath of cold wind passed. The sudden light appeared and went away again, and the noise that followed came sooner and was more fearful each time. A little rain began to fall.

"Quick, boys, run for cover!" Tom shouted.

They jumped up and ran, each toward a different place. A strong wind rushed through the trees. The bright light appeared and went away, appeared and went away again. The fearful noise seemed never to stop. And now a heavy rain came down and ran in streams over the ground. The boys shouted, but their voices were lost in the storm. After some time they came to the place where the old sail was and pulled it over them.

It was a wild night for these boys. The wind caught the old sail and carried it away. Trees fell. The storm increased until they feared that it might carry the island away.

But the storm grew weaker and weaker and peace returned.

The boys found that their fire was not quite dead. They put more wood on it, making it burn brightly again. They found some of their meat and cooked it. Then they sat by their fire until morning, talking of the night's adventure, because there was no dry place for them to sleep.

When the sun began to shine, they rested in its warm light, near the shore. There they remained, sleeping until the sun became too hot. Then they had something to eat again.

The desire for home was now strong in all of them. Tom tried to find a new game to interest them.

He found one. They were not pirates now. They were Indians and had many fierce battles. However, when the day ended, they smoked together, as Indians. always did to show that they were at peace. And two of them learned joyfully that now they could smoke a little tobacco without being sick.

Chapter 17: The Success of Tom's Plan

But there was no joy in the little town that same afternoon. The village was more quiet than usual. The people had little to say to each other. The children had no pleasure in their games.

Becky Thatcher was walking near the school. She thought, "Oh, I wish I had not returned to Tom that bright, shining ball he gave me! I have nothing to help me remember him. He is gone now, and I shall never, ever see him again."

She walked away with tears rolling down her face. Then a large group of boys and girls, friends of Tom and Joe, came to the school and stood looking over the fence into the yard where they had played together. They spoke of things Tom and Joe had said, and of things Tom and Joe had done. They tried to learn who was the last to see the two boys. The children who were the last to talk with Tom and Joe felt very important indeed.

One boy who also wished to feel important said, "I'd a fight with Tom Sawyer, and he was stronger than I was." But most of the boys could say that.

The next morning the church bell did not stop as it usually did after calling the people to church. It continued to ring.

The people from the village gathered. Outside the church, they talked, but in the church, all was very quiet. The little church was filled with people. After a long time, Aunt Polly entered, followed by Sid and Mary and by the Harper family. All were wearing black clothes. The other people in the church stood up. They remained standing while the two families walked to the front of the church and sat down.

It was quiet again. All prayed, and then a song followed. Now the church leader began to talk of the boys. He told how good they had been. People were sorry to remember that they had not seen the truth earlier when they had thought that these boys were bad. Tears were falling from all eyes.

The sound of the church door, opening slowly, was heard. One pair of eyes, and then another, turned to look. Then all in the church seemed to turn at the same time, and people rose and watched while the three dead boys walked to the front of the church. Tom was first, Joe next, and last came Huck. They had been listening to every word!

Aunt Polly, Mary, and the Harpers put their arms around Tom and Joe. Huck stood alone, not knowing what to do. He started to move away, but Tom stopped him and said:

"Aunt Polly, this is not right. Some person must be glad to see Huck."

"And some person shall be. I am glad to see him, dear boy!" She put her arms around him also. And now Huck felt more strange than before.

"Sing! And sing your best!" cried the church leader.

And all the people did sing. There had never been such singing in that church. Tom Sawyer, the Pirate, knew that no moment in his life could be prouder than this.

Chapter 18: Tom's Wonderful Dream

That was Tom's great plan - to return home with the other pirates and go to the church to hear people pray for their souls. They had returned across the river in the darkness the night before and had stayed in the forest until nearly daylight. They had entered the church and finished their sleep there before the people came. Then they appeared at the most important moment.

The next morning Aunt Polly and Mary were very loving toward Tom. He had everything he wanted to eat. There was much more talk than usual. Aunt Polly spoke:

"We can laugh now, Tom. But you were not very kind to let me suffer. You came across the river to surprise us in church. Why could you not come across the river to tell me that you were not really dead?"

"Yes, you could have done that, Tom," said Mary. "I believe you would have done it if you'd thought of it."

"Would you, Tom?" said Aunt Polly. Her face was brighter at this thought. "Would you, if you've thought of it? I hope you love me enough to do it. Did you think of it?"

"Tom is always rushing," Mary said. "He never thinks."

"Sid would have thought. And Sid would have come. Tom, someday you will be sorry. You will wish that you'd cared more for me. But then it will be too late."

"I do care for you," said Tom. "I wish that I had thought. But I dreamed about you."

"A cat does as much as that. What did you dream?"

"I dreamed that I saw you sitting there by the bed. Sid and Mary were sitting with you. And I dreamed that Joe Harper's mother was here."

"Indeed she was one night. Did you dream any more?"

"Yes. But I can't remember all of it."

"Try, Tom. Try to remember."

"You said that the door must be open because you could feel the wind coming in. You said that was strange. And you told Sid -"

"What did I tell Sid, Tom?"

"You told him - oh, you told him to close the door. And you were talking about me. I remember better now. You said that I was not bad. You said that I was only wild and full of life like a - like any young animal."

"I never heard anything like this in all my life! And some people say that dreams are never true. Tell me more, Tom."

"And then you began to weep."

"Yes, I did. I did."

"Then Mrs. Harper began to weep. She said that Joe was good, also. And then you told all about my giving the Painkiller to the cat. And then there was a lot of talk about finding our bodies, and about praying in the church on Sunday."

"It is all true!"

"And Mrs. Harper went home. And you prayed for me - and I could see you and hear every word. And you went to bed. And I was very sorry for you. And I had a letter for you. It was on a piece of wood. On the wood were the words, «We are not dead - we are away being pirates.» I kissed you on the lips and went away again."

"Did you, Tom? Did you?" She took him in her arms.

"It was very kind, but it was only a dream," said Sid.

"Be quiet, Sid! And Tom, here is a big apple for you. And now, you children, go to school."

Tom walked slowly and proudly, feeling that all eyes were watching him. Smaller boys followed him, proud to be seen with him. Boys of his own size tried not to show that they knew he had been away. But they did know. They wished that they had sun-browned skin like his. They wished that they were as famous.

Tom decided that he no longer was interested in Becky Thatcher. Being famous was enough pleasure for him. When Becky arrived at school, Tom seemed not to see her. But he saw her playing with other boys and girls. He saw that she often came near him and looked at him.

And he began talking to Amy Lawrence.

Becky tried to go away from him, but her feet would not do as she wished. They carried her near to the group around Tom. She said to one of the girls, "Mary, where were you yesterday? I wanted to tell you about the picnic."

"Oh, whose picnic?"

"My mother is going to let me have one."

"I hope she will let me come"

"It will be my picnic and I may ask those that I want. I want you and all my friends to come." She looked at Tom, but he was talking to Amy Lawrence.

Now the others in the group began asking if they could go to the picnic. Soon all had asked except Tom and Amy. Tom turned away.

Becky's legs were shaking and tears came to her eyes. She would not let the others see her sadness. She went away alone, to think of what to do.

When Tom saw her again, she and a boy named Alfred Temple were sitting together, looking at a book. Now Tom suddenly wanted to stop talking to Amy. He escaped from her and went to look again at Becky and Alfred Temple. And Becky seemed not to see Tom. But she saw him, and she saw that he was suffering, and she was glad.

"That Alfred Temple!" Tom thought. "Alfred Temple and his fine clothes! I will catch you! I will take you and-"

He began hitting the air as if he were fighting with the other boy.

At noon Tom went home. Becky again looked at the book with Alfred, hoping that Tom would see them. But Tom did not appear.

Suddenly she began to weep. She left Alfred and walked away.

Alfred followed, hoping to find some way to make her happy again. But she said: "Go away! I never want to see you again!"

Alfred was quick to understand. Becky had been trying to make Tom suffer. Alfred went into the school. He saw one of Tom's books - and thought how he could hurt Tom. He opened the book to the page they were to study that afternoon. He destroyed the page in a manner that would make it seem that Tom had done it.

Becky, looking in the window, saw him do it. She thought of telling Tom. Then she decided that she would not. She would let the schoolteacher beat Tom for what had happened to his book.

tobacco [tə'bækəʊ] -
табак






























increase [in'kri:s] -
повышать










Indian ['indiən] -
Индеец
fierce [fiə(r)s] -
жестокий


















gather ['gæðə(r)] -
собираться









































































painkiller -
болеутоляющее










_______________________________________________

Lesson 6 from radio station "VOA"

In this ENGLISH USA lesson you will learn how to ask for directions ([də'rekʃn] - направление) and understand simple directions. This is useful English for finding one's way in a city. Today Martin Learner is walking in the city looking for the Art ([a:(r)t] - исскуство] Museum. He asks several people where the museum is located ([ləʊ'keitid] - расположенный).

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 6, part 1:

Martin: Excuse me. Where is the museum?

Female (['fi:meil] - женщина) 1: The Art Museum? Go straight ahead. Then turn right at the Post Office.

Martin: The Post Office?

Female 1: Yes. That big white building straight ahead.

Martin: I see. Thank you.

Martin: Excuse me, please. Where is the Art Museum?

Male ([meil] - мужчина) 1: The Art Museum? Sorry. I don't know.

Martin: Excuse me. Where is the Art Museum?

Female 2: Hmmm. It's on the river.

Martin: Where is the river?

Female 2: Over there. The museum is on Adams Street. No, no. Maybe, it's on Jefferson Street. I'm sorry. I don't know the street. Ask in that office.

Martin: Thank you.

Martin: Good morning.

Male 2: Good morning.

Martin: Where is the Art Museum?

Male 2: It's on the river.

Martin: I know it's on the river.

Male 2: Barbara, where is the Art Museum?

Female 1: It's on Jefferson Street.

Martin: And where is Jefferson Street?

Male 2: You really are Lost! Come, I'll show you.

Martin: Thanks. I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter. I want to write about your museum.

Male 2: Oh, I see. Welcome.

Male 2: OK. Go straight ahead. Go... one... two... three... Go three blocks ([blɒks] - кварталы). Then turn left. That's Jefferson Street. Then go to the river.

Martin: Thank you very much.

Male 2: No trouble.

Let's listen to the part of this conversation again:

Martin: Where is the museum?

Female 1: Go straight ahead.

Martin: Where is the Art Museum?

Male 2: It's on the river.

Martin: Where is the river?

Female 1: Turn right.

Simple directions can be given by "turn right", "turn left", "go straight ahead", "go three blocks", or "go three streets". By pointing out landmarks (['lændma:(r)k] - достопримечательности) such as tall buildings, churches, stations by using simple phrases, it is possible to ask for and give directions.

Martin: Where is the museum?

Female 1: Go straight ahead. Then turn right.

Martin: Where is the Post Office?

Male 1: Go three blocks. Then turn left.

Martin: Where is the river?

Male 2: Turn right. Then go two streets.

Think about your city or town. If you are standing in some famous place in the town, in front of a big store for example, can you give directions? Can you answer these questions?

Martin: Where is the museum?

You: (Go straight ahead. Then turn right.)

Martin: Where is the river?

You: (Turn right. Then go two streets.)

Martin: Excuse me. Where is Jefferson Street?

Female 1: This is Jefferson Street.

Martin: Wonderful! Where is the river?

Female 1: Turn right. Then go straight ahead. You can't miss it.

Martin: Thanks.

In the next part of the English USA Lesson, Martin Learner is inside a museum. He meets the director ([də'rektə(r)] - директор).

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 6, Part 2:

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner.

Director: Good morning.

Martin: I'm a reporter for the Voice of America.

Director: I'm Elizabeth Gonzalez.

Martin: I'm writing a story about museums in the United States.

Director: How may I help you?

Martin: First, I want to see the museum. Then I want to ask some questions. What do you do?

Director: I'm the director of the museum.

Martin: Good.

Director: I direct ([də'rekt] - управлять, направлять) all of the work in the museum. What do you want to see first?

Martin: I like to write about people.

Director: Then you must see the American rooms. Come, I'll show you the way.

Martin: Thank you. Where are the American rooms?

Director: First, go upstairs. Go straight ahead. Turn left in the second ROOM.

Martin: Upstairs, straight ahead, turn left.

Director: Yes. The American rooms are upstairs.

Martin: Excuse me. Are these the American rooms?

Male 1: No. They are on the left. Look there. Do you see that door?

Martin: Yes.

Male 1: Go there. Turn left. Then go straight ahead.

Female 1: Excuse me, please. Where are the Native American rooms?

Martin: I'm sorry. I don't know. Ask that man over there.

Male 2: Hello. Where is the office?

Martin: Go downstairs. Then turn right.

Male 2: Thanks.

Let's listen to the part of this conversation again:

Martin: Where are the American rooms?

Director: Go upstairs. Then turn left.

Male 2: Where is the office?

Martin: Go downstairs. Then turn right.

The most useful phrases for giving directions in English are "Straight ahead", which means go straight ahead, "Turn right", "Turn left", which mean turn right or turn left. Another useful word is "go", which means go in the direction of or to some place. Now Martin is going outside and searching for a coffee shop:

Martin: Excuse me. Where is a coffee shop?

Female 2: Sorry. I don't know.

Martin: Please, excuse me. Where is a coffee shop?

Male 1: Coffee shop? Go to the Post Office. Then turn right. It's on Adams Street.

Martin: Excuse me. Where is Adams Street?

Female 1: Straight ahead.

Martin: Excuse me. Where is a coffee shop?

Male 2: Go one block. Do you see that hotel? Turn right.

Martin: Thanks.

Martin: Excuse me, please. Where is the coffee shop?

Female 2: Uhh. Coffee shop. Go over there.

Martin: Oh, I see. Thanks.

Waitress: Hello.

Martin: Hello. Coffee, please.

Martin: Ahhh. Wonderful.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

weakness - слабость (['wi:knəs])
shore - берег ([ʃɔ:(r)])
sail - парус ([seil])
area - область, территория (['eriə])
manner - манера (['mænə(r)])
stream - поток, ручей ([stri:m])
joyful - радостный (['dʒɔifəl])
whistle - свист, свисток, свистеть ([wisl])
loneliness - одиночество (['ləʊnlinəs])
purpose - цель (['pε:(r)pəs])
drown - тонуть, затоплять (['draʊn])
light - светить ([lait])
soul - душа ([səʊl])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

officer - сотрудник, офицер (['ɒfisə(r)])
sofa - диван, софа (['səʊfə])
adult - взрослый (['ædʌlt])
advice - совет ([əd'vais])
heaviness - тяжесть (['hevinəs])
picnic - пикник (['piknik])
baby - ребенок (['beibi])
couch - диван ([kaʊtʃ])
cloth - ткань, полотно ([klɒθ])
kid - ребенок ([kid])
roll - рулон, катиться ([rəʊl])

The new verb of this lesson is roll. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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