English for All

Lesson 74: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 5)
  • Lesson 5 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

area1 ['eriə] - область, территория
loneliness2 ['ləʊnlinəs] - одиночество
manner3 ['mænə(r)] - манера
purpose4 ['pε:(r)pəs] - цель
sail5 [seil] - парус
shore6 [ʃɔ:(r)] - берег
soul [səʊl] - душа
stream7 [stri:m] - поток, ручей
weakness2 ['wi:knəs] - слабость
whistle [wisl] - свист, свисток, свистеть
drown8 ['draʊn] - тонуть, затоплять
light9 [lait] - светить (lit [lit] , lit [lit] )
joyful2 ['dʒɔifəl] - радостный

1 - существительное area переводится не только как территория, область на местности (the area of the city, for dinner, the parking area and so on), но и имеет следующие значения:

  • "Площадь" местности:

  • This garage is twenty square meters in area. - Этот гараж площадью 20 квадратных метров.
  • "Область" какой-то деятельности, интереса:

  • What area of science do you study? - Какую область науки ты изучаешь?

2 - выучите еще несколько слов, образованных от других частей речи:

  • существительное loneliness образуется от прилагательного lonely с помощью суффикса -ness;

  • существительное weakness образуется от прилагательного weak с помощью суффикса -ness;

  • прилагательное joyful образуется от существительного joy с помощью суффикса -ful.

3 - наиболее точный перевод существительного manner является "манера". Это путь, способ, стиль поведения объекта в какой-либо обстановке:

His manner of work caused the delight of others. - Его манера работать вызывала восторг у других.

4 - существительное purpose похоже на изученное ранее goal, но является более абстрактным, широким. Это причина, по которой что-либо делается. Goal - это то, чего мы хотим достичь. Сравните два предложения:

What is purpose of your visit to our city? - Какова цель вашего визита нашего города?
Our main goal is to remain alive. - Наша главная цель - остаться в живых.

Но так как причина действия и цель часто являются одним и тем же, то и эти слова также часто взаимозаменяемы:

The purpose/goal of my work is to earn money. - Цель моей работы - заработать деньги.

5 - слово sail переводится не только как глагола "плыть", но и существительное "парус".

6 - существительное shore похоже на изученное ранее слово coast, но используется в меньшем масштабе. Coast переводится как "побережье", то есть большая береговая линия, как правило омываемая океаном. Shore является просто "берег" пруда, озера, реки.

7 - существительное stream имеет два основных значения:

  • "Ручей" - небольшая, узкая речка.

  • "Поток" - непрерывное движение объектов, следующих друг за другом. It can be the stream of water, gas, air, ground, people, events and so on.

  • 8 - глагол drown значит не только "тонуть" (быть запоненным вокруг себя большим количеством чего-либо - обычно воды), но и "топить" (преднамеренно погружать объект в воду):

    This evil man has drowned our cat. - Этот злой человек утопил нашего кота.

    9 - слово light является не только существительным "свет", но и глаголом "светить". Носители американского языка часто используют правильные вторую и третью формы глагола lighted, особенно в качестве прилагательного (past participle) "осветленный".

    Look at these new words in sentences:

    His loneliness is his manner, but it's also his weakness.
    Его одиночество - это его манера, но это также его слабость.
    The storm broke down our sail.
    Шторм сломал наш парус.
    The purpose of the church is to light our souls.
    Цель церкви - осветить наши души.
    His whistle was heard within all our area of the city.
    Его свист был слышен в пределах всего нашего района города.
    We won't raise the sail unless the wind changes
    Мы не поднимем парус, пока не изменится ветер.
    The man drowned because of the strong stream of water in this part of the river.
    Мужчина утонул из-за сильного течения воды в этой части реки.
    We have to walk along the whole shore of the river to find the drowned man.
    Мы должны пройти весь берег реки, чтобы найти утонувшего мужчину.
    This joyful guy doesn't have any weakness.
    У этого радостного парня нет никакой слабости.
    The trainer lost his whistle.
    Тренер потерял свой свисток.
    Every person has to care about his soul.
    Каждый человек должин заботиться о своей душе.
    Loneliness of old people causes sadness.
    Одиночество старых людей вызывает печаль.
    The area of the torn sail is too large to repaire it in the sea.
    Площадь порванного паруса слишком большая, чтобы починить его в море.
    Your fire lights the whole shore.
    Твой костер освещает весь берег.
    The weakness of the stream forced us to raise sail.
    Слабость потока заставила нас поднять парус.
    The joyful pirate whistled to be noticed.
    Радостный пират свистел, чтобы быть замеченным.
    The purpose of the priest's visit is to treat her soul.
    Цель визита священника - вылечить ее душу.
    All the shore line was drowned because of the endless rain.
    Вся береговая линия была затоплена из-за бесконечного дождя.
    I like his joyful manner of leading meetings.
    Мне нравится его радостная манера вести собрания.
    This stream suplies local people with drinking water.
    Этот ручей снабжает местных людей питьевой водой.
    She didn't like when someone whistled behind her.
    Ей не нравилось, когда кто-то свестел позади нее.
    It's better to lose the life than to lose the soul.
    Лучше потерять жизнь, чем потерять душу.
    They were looking for any weakness to hurt him.
    Они искали любую слабость, чтобы ранить его.
    This stream takes away our fallen sail.
    Этот поток унес наш упавший парус.
    Your manners annoy everybody.
    Твои манеры раздражают всех.
    This area of science is still unknown.
    Эта область науки все еще неизвестна.

    Next, we continue reading our started text.

    Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 5)

    Chapter 13: The Young Pirates

    Tom had decided now. He was sad and without hope. He was a boy with no friends. No person loved him. He had tried to do what was right, but they would not let him. Yes, they were forcing him into a bad life. He could now choose nothing else.

    He had come far from the village.

    He heard the distant school bell, and he knew that he would never, never hear it again. Tears fell from his eyes. Here he met his best friend, Joe Harper. Joe's eyes were filled with anger, and it was easy to see that there was a great and sad purpose in his heart.

    Tom said that he was going to travel around the world, never to return to the village. He hoped that Joe would not forget him.

    And Joe had come to say the same to Tom. They were two souls with only one thought.

    Joe's mother had beaten him. But he had done nothing. She plainly wished him to go away. Therefore, he was going. He hoped that she would be happy now. He hoped that she would never be sorry about sending her boy into the cold world to suffer and die.

    The two boys walked together. They agreed to be like brothers. They would never separate until they died. They began to plan.

    They decided to be pirates.

    Three miles south of the village, there was an island in the river. The Mississippi River was a mile wide there. The island was long and not very wide, and it was covered with trees. No people lived on it, and few people lived on the river's shore near the island. It would be a good place for pirates.

    Then they met Huckleberry Finn, and he joined them.

    They talked, and then they separated. They would meet again beside the river two miles north of the village at twelve that night. Tom knew where they would find a small boat. They would take it. Each boy would bring food and other useful things, if possible.

    Tom arrived with meat and a few other things. He stopped among the trees on a hill above the meeting place. There were many stars, and it was very quiet. The great river lay like an ocean at rest. Tom listened a moment, but the quiet was broken by no sound. Then he whistled gently. The whistle was answered from below. Tom whistled two more times and was answered again. Then a voice said:

    "Who goes there?"

    "Tom Sawyer the Black Pirate. Name your names."

    "Huck Finn the Red-Handed and Joe Harper the Destroyer of the Seas." Tom had taken these names from his best-loved books.

    "Speak the word."

    Two voices spoke together: "BLOOD!"

    Tom went down the hill to join them.

    The Destroyer of the Seas had also brought meat, and Finn the Red-Handed had some tobacco. The Black Pirate said that they must also have fire. They went to a large riverboat that was near, and they took some of the fire burning there. They knew that there were no men on the boat. The boatmen were all in the village. But the boys moved very quietly and carefully. Pirates must be pirates.

    With Tom as captain of their ship, they left the shore and went into the middle of the river. From here they let the moving river carry them along. They passed the distant village. Two or three lights showed where it was, peacefully sleeping. The Black Pirate stood in the boat looking for the last time at the scene of his early joys and later sufferings. He wished that his aunt could see him now, facing the fearful future with a smile on his lips.

    After two hours their boat touched the island. There was an old sail in the boat. They spread this over their supplies, under the trees. They would sleep in the open air, as pirates should.

    They built a fire and cooked some meat. It seemed wonderful to be eating in that wild, free manner in the forest, far from other people. They said that they would never return to a village or town again.

    After eating, they lay on the ground, talking. The fire lighted their faces and the trees near them with a red light. Huck prepared to smoke some of his tobacco. Soon he was blowing out a cloud of smoke, and the other pirates were wishing that they could do the same.

    Huck said, "What do pirates do?"

    Tom said, "Oh, they enjoy life. They follow other ships and catch them and burn them. They take the money from those ships and put it in a deep hole in the ground on their island. Then they kill the people on the ships."

    "They carry the women to the island," said Joe. "They do not kill the women."

    "No," Tom agreed. "Pirates are good. They do not kill the women. And the women are always beautiful."

    "And their clothes are covered with gold and silver," said Joe.

    "Whose clothes?" said Huck.

    "The pirates."

    Huck looked down at his clothes. "I am not dressed for a pirate," he said. "But these are my only clothes."

    The other boys told him that the fine clothes would come later when they began their adventures.

    Slowly their talk ended. The Red-Handed went to sleep quickly. The Destroyer of the Seas and the Black Pirate could not sleep so quickly. They began now to have some doubt. Had it been wrong to run away from home? Had it been wrong to take the meat? The meat did not belong to them. They decided that they would never again take what did not belong to them.

    And with that decided, these pirates also were peacefully asleep.

    Chapter 14: Island Life - Tom Quietly Leaves

    Opening his eyes, Tom wondered where he was. He sat up and looked around. Then he remembered.

    It was cool and the light was the gray color of early morning. There was a delightful feeling of rest and peace in the deep quiet of the forest. A thin blue breath of smoke rose from the fire. Joe and Huck were yet asleep.

    Now, far away, a bird called. Another answered. Slowly the cool gray of the morning changed to white. More sounds were heard. The life of the forest began to show itself to the watching boy. Bugs appeared and started their day's labors. Birds were making many noises now. A big blue bird stopped very near to Tom. It turned its head to one side and sat watching its strange new neighbors. Small animals appeared and they also looked at the boys and seemed to be talking to them. Perhaps they had never seen a human being before. Perhaps they did not know whether or not to be afraid.

    Tom called to the other pirates. Within a few minutes, they were all playing in the river near the shore. Their boat had been carried away, but this pleased them. They were certain now that they would never return to their village.

    Happy and hungry, they built their fire. Huck had found some good water to drink. While Joe cooked some meat, Tom and Huck went to the river and caught some fish. Joe cooked these with the meat. No fish had ever tasted so good.

    Then Huck smoked. After that, they all started to walk through the trees to see what they could discover.

    They found much to delight them, but nothing surprising. The island was almost three miles long and a quarter of a mile wide. It was very near to the shore on one side, but far from the shore where their village was.

    They played in the river often. It was the middle of the afternoon before they returned to their fire. They ate some meat again and then they sat in the shade to talk.

    But the talk soon stopped. The quiet, the loneliness, were beginning to change their happiness. They began to be sad. Tom and Joe were thinking of home. Finn the Red-Handed, who had no home, was thinking of the places where he usually went to sleep.

    But they did not speak to each other of this weakness.

    Now they heard a distant sound. They looked at each other and listened. There was a long quiet, and then the sound - Boom! Then a long, long quiet, and then again, Boom!

    "We must go and see."

    They jumped up and ran to the shore nearer the town. The trees there were small and grew thickly. Through them, the boys looked across the water.

    They saw a big riverboat. It was the boat that crossed the river many times every day. Now it was coming slowly down the river. It was crowded with people. There were many small boats around it. Then from the riverboat came a cloud of white smoke, and then another Boom!

    "I understand now!" said Tom. "Some person is drowned!"

    "That is right," said Huck. "They did that last summer when Bill Turner was drowned. A big gun makes that Boom! And then the body rises to the top of the water."

    "I wish I was on that riverboat now," said Joe.

    "I wonder who is drowned," said Huck.

    They continued to listen and watch. Then a thought came into Tom's mind like a sudden light. "Boys, I know who is drowned. They are looking for us!"

    This was a wonderful thing to know. Hearts were breaking for them. Tears were falling. People were sorry that they had not always been kind to them. The whole town was talking about them. This was fine.

    It was good to be a pirate. All doubt of that was gone.

    As darkness came, the riverboat returned to her usual business. The pirates returned to their fire. They were joyful that they were so important and were causing so much sadness.

    They caught more fish to eat. Then they talked about what the village people were thinking and saying.

    But as the night grew darker, they stopped talking and sat looking into the fire. Tom and Joe thought of persons at home who were not enjoying all of this. Joe began to speak of returning to the village.

    Tom laughed at him. Huck joined with Tom.

    Huck fell asleep. Then Joe fell asleep. Tom sat for a long time, watching the others.

    Then he stood up. He found two pieces of thin wood on which he could write. After writing on the wood, he put one piece in Joe's hat. He put the other in his pocket.

    Then, carefully, he moved away among the trees. When he knew that they could not hear him, he began to run toward the river.

    Chapter 15: Tom Learns What Is Happening

    A few minutes later Tom was walking into the water toward the shore where the riverboat was tied. The stream was not wide here, but it was strong. It carried Tom south. But after a while, he arrived at the river's edge. He found a good place and pulled himself out of the water. He began walking north through the trees, near the shore.

    He arrived at an open area, across the river from the village. The riverboat was lying near. Everything was quiet under the stars. Watching with both eyes, he entered the water again. There was a small boat tied behind the large boat. Soon he was pulling himself into the small boat.

    After a minute or two he heard a bell. The riverboat began to move. He knew that this was the last time it would cross the river that night. Twelve minutes later the boat stopped. Tom was quickly in the water again, swimming to the shore.

    Soon he had jumped over the fence behind his aunt's house. He looked through a window into a lighted room. There sat Aunt Polly, Sid, Mary, and Joe Harper's mother. They were talking. They were beside the bed, and the bed was between them and the door.

    Tom went to the door and opened it quietly. He thought that he might be able to go inside without being seen. He began moving carefully, on his knees.

    "I feel a wind. Is that door open?" said Aunt Polly. "How strange! Many strange things are happening now. Sid, go and close the door."

    Quickly Tom went under the bed. Sid did not see him.

    "But," said Aunt Polly, "He was not bad. He was only wild and full of life, like any young animal. He did not wish to do bad things. And no boy ever had a kinder heart." She began to weep.

    My Joe was the same. He was not really bad. And he was always kind. And now I shall never see him again!"

    "I am sorry now for so many things! Only yesterday the cat-" Weeping, Aunt Polly told about the cat and the Painkiller. Tom was weeping a little now. He could hear Mary weeping also. Had he really always been a good boy? It was quite surprising to think this. But now he was beginning to believe it. He wished to rush out from under the bed. He wished to fill his aunt with joy. But he remained still and listened.

    Their small boat had been found five or six miles down the river. Now hope for them was gone. On Sunday the whole village would pray in the church, for the boys' souls.

    Mrs. Harper went home. Sid and Mary went to bed. Then Aunt Polly prayed for Tom. Her words and her old voice were filled with love. Tom's tears began falling again.

    Then she got into bed. She talked to herself and she turned over again and again. Tom remained quiet for a long time. But at last, she was still.

    Now the boy came out and looked down at her. He loved her and he was very sorry for her. He took from his pocket the piece of wood with his writing on it. He placed it on a table. She would see it there in the morning.

    But then a new thought came to him. He considered it. His face grew bright. He put the wood into his pocket again. Then he kissed his aunt's lips and went out the door.

    He returned to the river and to the riverboat. There was a man who guarded the boat, but he would be sleeping. Tom knew that. It was easy to take the small boat. He got into it and moved it first up the river. Then he crossed to the other shore. He had often crossed the river in a small boat, and he knew how to do it.

    He considered taking the small boat to the island. A real pirate would keep the boat. But people would try to find it, and they might find the boys also.

    He got out of the boat and walked south along the shore. At daylight, he could look straight across the stream and see the island. He rested. Then he entered the water.

    Soon he was on the island. He heard Joe say:

    "No. Tom is true, Huck. He will return. What has he been doing? I wonder."

    "Here I am!" cried Tom, stepping out from among the trees.

    In a short time they had caught more fish and were eating them. Tom told his adventures. Then Tom found a place in the shade. There he was able to sleep until noon.

    plain[plein] -
    простой
    plainly - просто





    Mississippi [misi'sipi] -
    Миссисипи (река в США)
























    tobacco [tə'bækəʊ] -
    табак



    captain ['kæptin] -
    капитан


    spread [spred] -
    раскладывать









































    labor ['leibə(r)] -
    труд































































































    painkiller -
    болеутоляющее


















    _______________________________________________

    Lesson 5 from radio station "VOA"

    In this lesson, Martin Learner says goodbye at the tractor (['træktə(r)] - трактор) factory, and later he says "goodbye" and "thank you" to people at the airport. You will learn to say goodbye and thank you.

    This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now Lesson 5, Part 1.

    Martin: Good afternoon Mrs. Montgomery.

    Melanie: Hello. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

    Melanie: Fine thanks. This is Phil Russell. He's a supervisor ('su:pə(r)vaizə(r)] - руководитель, контролер).

    Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

    Phil: Thanks. Who are you?

    Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

    Melanie: He's a reporter, Phil.

    Phil: I'm happy to meet you.

    Martin: Thanks. Goodbye.

    Phil: Goodbye Mr. Learner.

    Martin: Hello. We've met. I'm Martin Learner.

    Rajesh: I'm Rajesh Sharma. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. Please write your name for me. Thanks. Goodbye Mr. Sharma.

    Rajesh: Goodbye Mr. Learner.

    Martin: Goodbye Mr. Wang.

    TIM: Goodbye Mr. Learner.


    The easiest way to take leave of someone is to say simply "Goodbye." Listen again:

    Martin: Goodbye.

    Phil: Goodbye Mr. Learner.

    Rajesh: Goodbye Mr. Learner.

    Martin: Goodbye Mr. Sharma.

    Martin: Goodbye Mr. Wang.

    TIM: Goodbye Mr. Learner.


    Can you say goodbye to these people?

    Martin: Goodbye.

    You: (Goodbye Mr. Learner.)

    Rajesh: Goodbye.

    You: (Goodbye Mr. Sharma.)

    Melanie: Goodbye.

    You: (Goodbye Mrs. Montgomery.)

    Martin: Hello Miss Cosby.

    Dinah: Good morning. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

    Dinah: Fine thanks. This is Evokka Bedford.

    Martin: Pardon?

    Dinah: Evokka Bedford.

    Martin: Hello. Please write your name for me. Evokka. Bedford. Thanks. What do you do?

    Dinah: She's a painter ([peintə(r) - художник, маляр).

    Martin: Goodbye Miss Bedford. Goodbye Miss Cosby.

    Dinah: Goodbye.

    Melanie: Martin, this is Betsy Steele.

    Martin: We've met. Hello, Miss Steele.

    Betsy: Good afternoon. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

    Betsy: Fine thanks.

    Martin: Who are you?

    BOYD: Boyd Rifice. Who are you?

    Melanie: This is Martin Learner. He's a reporter.

    Martin: Boyd?

    BOYD: Boyd Rifice.

    Martin: Please write your name for me.

    Melanie: Boyd is a painter too.

    Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

    BOYD: Thanks. Goodbye.

    Martin: Goodbye. Goodbye, Miss Steele.

    Betsy: Goodbye.


    Can you ask some of these people to write their names for you when they introduce themselves. Let's listen again to two examples:

    BOYD: I'm Boyd Rifice.

    Martin: Please write your name for me.

    Dinah: This is Evokka Bedford.

    Martin: Please write your name for me.


    Now, you ask them to write their names:

    Betsy: I'm Betsy Steele.

    You: (Please write your name for me.)

    Dinah: I'm Dinah Cosby.

    You: (Please write your name for me.)

    Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

    You: (Please write your name for me.)

    Martin: Who are you?

    Andy: I'm Andy Hendricks. We've met.

    Martin: Oh. Please write your name for me. Thank you for your time.

    Andy: Goodbye.

    Martin: Goodbye. Mrs. Montgomery, thank you for your time.

    Melanie: Goodbye, Mr. Learner.


    In the secon part of the lesson you will repeat how to say goodbye and thank you to people you have met. Martin Learner is at the airport where he says goodbye to people he met there recently.

    This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now Lesson 5, Part 2.

    Mrs. G: Good afternoon, Mr. Learner.

    Martin: Hello. How are you?

    Mrs. G: Fine thanks. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. Mr. Bishop, please.

    Mrs. G: Certainly.

    Charles: Come in.

    Martin: Good afternoon, Mr. Bishop.

    Charles: Hello, Martin. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. How are you?

    Charles: This is Tony Adler.

    Martin: We've met. I'm Martin Learner.

    Tony: You're a reporter.

    Martin: Yes. What do you do?

    Tony: I'm assistant communications director ([ə'sistənt kəmju:ni'keiʃnz də'rektə(r)] - помощник директора по связям).

    Martin: Pardon?

    Tony: Assistant communications director.

    Martin: Please write it for me. Please write your name for me. Thanks. Goodbye, Tony. Goodbye, Mr. Bishop. Thank you for your time.

    Charles: Thank you. Goodbye, Martin.

    Martin: Thank you for your time, Mrs. Gabrielli.

    Mrs. G: Goodbye, Mr. Learner.

    Martin: Goodbye.


    When someone takes time to help you, you should thank them for their help or their time. Listen to Martin again:

    Martin: Goodbye, Mr. Bishop. Thank you for your time.

    Martin: Thank you for your time, Mrs. Gabrielli.


    Now you thank the speaker for his or her time:

    Charles: Goodbye.

    You:( Goodbye, Mr. Bishop. Thank you for your time.)

    Mrs. G: Goodbye.

    You: ( Goodbye, Mrs. G. Thank you for your time.)

    Tony: Goodbye.

    You: ( Goodbye, Mr. Adler. Thank you for your time.)

    Valerie: Hello, Martin.

    Martin: Hello. How are you?

    Valerie: Fine thanks. How are you? This is Cheryl Gordon. She's a controller.

    Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

    CHERYL: Thanks. Who are you?

    Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

    Valerie: He's a reporter, Cheryl.

    CHERYL: I'm happy to meet you.

    Martin: Thanks. Goodbye, Miss Gordon.

    CHERYL: Goodbye, Mr. Learner.

    Martin: Goodbye, Valerie.

    Valerie: Goodbye.

    Martin: Thank you for your time.

    Martin: Hello. Uh- Mary-

    Mary: Mary Scott. Who are you?

    Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

    Mary: Yes. You're a reporter.

    Martin: Yes. What do you do?

    Mary: I'm a teacher. This is Sidney Schorn.

    Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

    Sidney: Hello. How are you?

    Martin: Fine thanks. What do you do?

    Sidney: I'm a teacher.

    Mary: We are both teachers.

    Martin: Wonderful! Goodbye. Thank you for your time.

    Mary: Goodbye.

    Sidney: Goodbye.


    Can you say goodbye to these people?

    Martin: Goodbye.

    You: ( Goodbye, Mr. Learner.)

    Mary: Goodbye.

    You: ( Goodbye, Mrs. Scott.)

    Sidney: Goodbye.

    You: ( Goodbye, Mr. Schorn.)

    ATTEND: Good afternoon. Who are you?

    Martin: I'm Martin Learner.

    ATTEND: Please write your name for me.

    Martin: Who are you?

    ATTEND: I'm an attendant ([ə'tendənt] - обслуживающее лицо).

    Martin: Oh. Thank you.

    Remember the words of the previous lesson:

    fearful - напуганный, страшный (['fiə(r)fəl])
    contain - содержать ([kən'tein])
    storm - шторм ([stɔ:(r)m])
    spirit - дух (['spirit])
    pour - налить, вылить ([pɔ:(r)])
    jail - тюрьма ([dʒeil])
    strike - удар, забастовка, бить ([straik])
    kindness - доброта (['kaindnəs])
    yard - двор, ярд ([ja:(r)d])
    unless - если не, пока не ([ən'les])
    grave - могила ([greiv])
    graveyard - кладбище (['greivja:(r)d])
    gate - ворота ([geit])

    Repeat the words of this lesson:

    purpose - цель (['pε:(r)pəs])
    light - светить ([lait])
    soul - душа ([səʊl])
    area - область, территория (['eriə])
    stream - поток, ручей ([stri:m])
    joyful - радостный (['dʒɔifəl])
    whistle - свист, свисток, свистеть ([wisl])
    manner - манера (['mænə(r)])
    drown - тонуть, затоплять (['draʊn])
    shore - берег ([ʃɔ:(r)])
    weakness - слабость (['wi:knəs])
    loneliness - одиночество (['ləʊnlinəs])
    sail - парус ([seil])

    The new verbs of this lesson are drown, light and whistle. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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