English for All

Lesson 71: English - улучшение восприятия

In this lesson we'll learn:

  • New words
  • Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 2)
  • Lesson 2 from radio station "VOA"

The new words of the lesson

bible [baibl] - библия
bug1 [bʌg] - жук, жучок (для подслушивания), баг
fellow2 ['feləʊ] - парень, приятель, товарищ
honour3 ['ɒnə] - честь, почет, почтить
judge4 [dʒʌdʒ] - судья, судить
nation5 [neiʃn] - нация, народ
size [saiz] - размер
verse [vε:(r)s] - стих
wing6 [wiŋ] - крыло
pray7 [prei] - молиться
ring8 [riŋ] - звонить, звенеть (rang [ræŋ] , rung [rʌŋ] )
equal9 ['i:kwəl] - равный
painful10 [peinfl] - болезненный
peaceful10 [pi:sfl] - мирный

1 - существительное bug можно легко спутать с изученным ранее beetle. Но они имеют значительное отличие в том, что bugs питаются, высасывая жидкость из пищи: клещ, клоп, водомерка, блоха; beetles же имеют челюсти и пережевывают пищу: колорадский жук, божья коровка, майский жук. В тексте этого урока жука называют bug, хотя правильно будет beetle, так как он хватает Тома и собаку челюстью.

2 - существительное fellow примерно равно нашему "парень, приятель" в неформальной обстановке (обычно нейтральное по эмоции).

3 - слово honour отличается не только в произношение, но и в написание американскими носителями языка. Они используют следующую форму: honor ['a:nər]. Как уже говорилось, многие слова, которые в UK английском имеют окончание -our в американском английском меняют окончание на -or (neighbour → neighbor, colour → color). И так как произношение honour начинается с гласного звука, то перед ним стоит форма неопределенного артикля an (в тех случаях, когда он нужен).

4 - после глагола judge могут стоять предлоги by/from, если говорится по чему судят об объекте. Реже вы можете встретить предлог on:

They judged me by/from/on my words. - Они судили меня по моим словам.

Лучше используйте предлог by, так как не во всех ситуациях эти предлоги звучат соответственно контексту.

5 - существительное nation хоть и может переводиться схожим образом со словом people, но применяется в более узком смысле - группа людей, связанных кровью, языком, культурой, историей и другим. Когда как people может объединять любую группу людей (вплоть до всего человечества).

6 - существительное wing имеет такое же широкое значение, как и русское слово "крыло": the wing of the the bird, the plane, the car, the building и другое.

7 - после глагола pray используется предлог for, если говорится за что/кого происходит молитва, и предлог to, если говорится кому обращается молитва:

I prayed to God for you. - Я молился Богу за тебя.

Существительное "молитва" образуется от этого глагола с помощью окончания -er: prayer [preə(r)].

8 - основное значение глагола ring это делать повторяющие вибрирующие звуки. Обычно их издает существительное из предыдущего урока bell:

When the bell had rung, children went to the lesson. - Когда звонок зазвенел, дети пошли на урок.

Если говорится во что звонят, то после этого глагола не ставится предлога:

I rang the door bell. - Я звонил в дверной звонок.

В британском английском ring также значит "звонить" по телефону, но сейчас все чаще используется call обоими носителями языка.

9 - если говорится кому/чему равен объект, то после прилагательного equal ставится предлог дательного падежа ("равен кому/чему") to:

The size of this building is equal to the size of the highest mountain in the world. - Размер этого здания равен размеру самой высокой горе в мире.

10 - два прилагательных painful и peaceful образованы от известных нам существительных с помощью распространенного суффикса -ful.

Look at these new words in sentences:

How can you judge the whole nation by one fellow?
Как ты можешь судить целую нацию по одному человеку?
The bell rings when it's time to go to pray.
Колокол звенит, когда время идти молиться.
This fellow has extreme sizes.
Этот парень имеет экстремальные размеры.
It is an big honour to pray for you.
Это большая честь молиться за тебя.
The size of the wings of this bug is huge.
Размер крыльев этого жука огромен.
There are a lot of verses in the bible.
В библии много стихов.
It will be painful for the bug if you tear off its wings.
Это будет болезненно для жука, если ты оторвешь ему крылья.
The pupil didn't have time to learn a verse.
У ученика не было времени выучить стих.
The prisoners have to honour the judge.
Заключенные должны почитать судью.
He can't start to pray without his bible.
Он не может начать молитву без его библии.
The solders, who came in our village, were peaceful.
Солдаты, которые пришли в нашу деревню, были мирные.
The bible doesn't judge anyone. It points us the way.
Библия не осуждает никого. Она указывает нам путь.
The bird hurt its wing.
Птица поранила свое крыло.
Our nation is situated on the large part of the continent.
Наша нация располагается на большой части континента.
The size of these shorts is equal to those ones.
Размер этих шорт равен тем.
Your programme has a lot of bugs.
У твоей программы много багов.
Our group didn't accept this fellow.
Наша группа не принимала этого парня.
The battle will begin when the bell rings.
Битва начнется, когда звонок зазвенит.
We prayed for a miracle.
Мы молились о чуде.
The judge of the game was peaceful to our crew.
Судья игры был мирным к нашей команде.
The size of this nation is almost equal to yours.
Размер этой нации почти равен твоей.
This wing of the building is closed for repair.
Это крыло здания закрыто для ремонта.
It is a matter of honour to keep silence for this painful process.
Это вопрос чести хранить молчание в течение этого болезненного процесса.
I demand for the equal value of my loss.
Я требую равной стоимости моей потере.
If tourists feel any danger, they can ring special bell.
Если туристы чувствуют какую-то опасность, они могут позвонить в специальный звонок.
He promises to pray for this nation to his god.
Он обещает помолиться за эту нацию своему богу.
He is reading the verses during all evening.
Он читает стихи в течение всего вечера.
These fellows offered me the equal share of money.
Эти парни предложили мне равную долю денег.

Now, we continue to read about Tom's adventures.

Text: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (part 2)

Chapter 4: Going to Sunday School

The sun rose upon a quiet world and looked warmly down upon the peaceful village. The family began the day by praying together.

Then Tom did his Sunday studying. He was trying to learn some words from the Bible. Sid had already finished his studying, but Tom was slow. His mind was busy with other things.

Tom was learning five verses. Some verses are long and some are short. Tom had found five short verses. Aunt Polly's daughter, Mary, helped him, and after a time, he could say the verses without looking at the book.

Mary gave him a knife for studying so well. It was not a good knife, but it was a knife. Tom was deeply delighted.

Then Mary helped him to dress in his Sunday clothes. He hoped that she would forget his shoes. But she did not.

When they were ready, the three children went to Sunday school.

With his whole heart, Tom wished not to go. Mary and Sid enjoyed going.

At the church door Tom stopped to speak to a friend. "Billy, do you have a yellow ticket?"

"Yes."

"Will you sell it to me?"

"What will you pay for it?"

Tom offered enough, and received the ticket. Then Tom stopped other boys, and bought more tickets, some red and some blue. He was busy with this buying for about ten minutes. Then he went into the church.

These tickets were given for learning the Bible verses. A blue ticket was given for two verses. A red ticket was equal to ten blue tickets. A yellow ticket was equal to ten red tickets. And for ten yellow tickets, for learning two thousand verses, the Sunday school teacher gave the student a Bible.

It was a wonderful day when a boy or a girl received one of these Bibles. Perhaps Tom did not want the Bible. But he did want the wonderful experience of receiving it.

"Now, children," the teacher said, "Sit up as straight as possible, and listen. That is what good little boys and girls should do."

While the teacher was talking, three gentlemen and a lady entered the church. The lady was leading a child.

When Tom saw this small girl, waves of happiness went over him. He began hitting other boys, pulling their hair, doing everything to force the new girl to look at him and smile. He was quickly forgetting the water the woman threw from her window the night before.

The gentlemen and the lady went to the front of the church and sat down there. Then the teacher told who they were. One gentleman was Mr. Thatcher, who lived in the village. All knew him. But one was his brother, the great Judge Thatcher. He had traveled, he had seen the world, he came from a large town twelve miles away.

The teacher wished that on this day he could give some boy or girl a Bible. He would have been proud to do that. The famous Judge Thatcher would know, then, that this was a fine Sunday school. But no child had enough yellow tickets.

At this moment, when hope was dead, Tom Sawyer came forward. He had nine yellow tickets, nine red tickets, and ten blue tickets. It was like a storm coming from a clear sky. The teacher had not expected Tom to gather so many tickets in ten years, but here were the tickets.

It was the surprise of the year. The teacher knew that it was strange. He could not understand how it had happened. He did not believe that Tom had learned two thousand verses. He did not believe that Tom had learned twelve verses. The other boys watched Tom. All wished that they, too, had enough tickets for a Bible. Some boys suffered more deeply, because they had sold Tom their tickets. They were able to understand what had happened. Tom had become rich by letting other boys whitewash the fence. He had been rich enough to buy their tickets. And now anger filled them. They saw clearly what fools they had been.

Tom stood in a place of honor beside the Judge.

The Judge put his hand on Tom's head and called him a fine little man. Tom could not speak. His breath would not come. His heart was shaking. This was partly because the Judge was a great man, but it was chiefly because the Judge was her father.

The Judge asked his name.

"Tom."

"Is that all of it?"

"Thomas."

"But you have more, perhaps? Another name?"

"Tell the gentleman your other name, Thomas," said the teacher.

"Thomas Sawyer."

"That is a good boy. You are a fine, manly little fellow. Two thousand verses is a very, very great many. And you never can be sorry that you learned them. Learning makes great men and good men. You will be a great man and a good man some day, Thomas. Then you will remember this day. Then you will be glad that you went to Sunday school. Now, Thomas, tell me and this lady some of what you have learned in your Bible verses. We are proud of little boys who learn. Now, you know the names of the twelve great followers of Jesus Christ. Tell us the names of the first two."

Tom's face became red and he looked down at his feet.

The teacher knew that Tom could not answer. But he felt that he must speak. He said: "Answer the gentleman, Thomas. Do not be afraid."

Tom said nothing.

"Surely you will tell me," said the lady. "The names of the first two followers of Jesus Christ were -"

Tom remembered two names from the Bible. He did not remember who the people were, or what they had done. But the two names were always together. He shouted them now: "DAVID AND GOLIATH!"

But David and Goliath had not been among the twelve great followers of Jesus Christ. Their story was in a different part of the Bible. David was a boy and Goliath was a man of very great size and strength. They were enemies. And David had killed Goliath.

Let us be kind enough to look away from the rest of this scene of Tom Sawyer in Sunday school.

Chapter 5: In Church

The bell of the small church began to ring. The people began to gather to hear Mr. Sprague speak to them. Mr. Sprague spoke to them in church every Sunday and prayed with them.

The Sunday-school children now sat with their fathers and mothers, who would try to keep them quiet. Aunt Polly came, and Tom and Sid and Mary sat with her. Tom was placed as far as possible from the open window and the interesting summer scenes outside.

Other people came in and went to their seats. There were the old and poor. There were the middle-aged. There were the pretty girls in bright summer clothes, and the young men, with their eyes following the girls. There was Mrs. Douglas, whose husband died. She was rich and good-hearted, and she lived in the big house on Cardiff Hill. There was Mufferson, the "Good Boy" of the village. He came to church with his mother. All the other mothers talked of his goodness. All the other boys did not like him.

Now the bell was heard again, and then the church became very quiet. They were ready to begin.

They began with a song. After the song, Mr. Sprague read a very long list of meetings to come in the following week. Then he prayed.

He prayed for many things and for many people. He prayed for the church, and for the little children of the church, and for the other churches of the village, and for the village, and then for the whole country, and for the Government, and then for people of far countries.

Tom did not enjoy hearing Mr. Sprague pray, but he knew he must remain quiet.

While Mr. Sprague prayed, a flying bug stopped on the back of the seat in front of Tom. It moved its front legs together, one over the other. It put them around its head and seemed to pull until Tom thought that the head would separate from the body. It used its back legs to clean its wings. And it did all this slowly as if knowing that it was safe. And indeed it was safe. Tom did not dare to reach for it. He believed that his soul would be destroyed suddenly if he did such a thing while Mr. Sprague was praying.

But with the last words, his hand began to move forward. When the last word came, the bug was in his hand. But his aunt saw this. She told him to let the bug fly away.

Then Mr. Sprague began a longer talk. He read the words he was saying and Tom counted the pages as he turned them.

After church, Tom always knew how many pages there had been. He did not often know what had been said.

But this morning Tom was interested for a little while. Mr. Sprague talked about future peace in the world. The strong and powerful nations, he said, would be friends of the weak. The strong, he said, would be like a strong, wild animal of the forest. The weak would be like a weak animal of the farm. But the strong animal would not hurt the weak animal. They would lie down beside each other, in peace. They would be so gentle and friendly that a little child could lead them.

Tom wished to be that child.

Then there was no more talk about animals. Again Tom began to suffer. He remembered a valuable object that he carried, and he took it from his pocket. It was a large black bug in a small box.

The bug quickly took a painful hold on Tom's finger. The next moment, the bug was on the floor, on its back, and Tom's finger was in his mouth.

The bug lay there, moving its legs, but it could not get on its feet again. Tom could not reach it. It was too far away. But he watched it.

Other people, also not interested in Mr. Sprague's words, found pleasure in watching the bug.

Then a dog entered the church. He was sad at heart. He wanted some new, different thing to do. He saw the large black bug, and his tail lifted and moved a little, happily. He looked at the bug carefully; walked around it; put his nose nearer; lay down with the bug between his front feet; and began to sleep. His head moved down, it touched the bug, and the bug took a painful hold on his nose. The dog cried loudly, shaking his head.

And the bug fell again on the floor, on its back.

People sitting near were laughing gently, with their faces covered. Tom was completely happy. The dog seemed like a fool, and perhaps felt like a fool. There was anger in his heart, also. He went near the bug again and began jumping at it. Moving in a circle, he jumped again and again.

Then he had had enough of jumping. He found a smaller bug and followed it for a while. Then he had had enough of the smaller bug. Forgetting the large black bug, he sat down on it.

With a wild cry of pain, he went running around the church. The bug kept its hold. The dog ran across the front of the church, and across the back. His cries grew louder and louder. Then he jumped into his owner's arms. His owner threw him out a low window. Then slowly the sound of his voice grew softer and was gone as he ran quickly away.

Now all the people in the church had red faces and were trying not to laugh. Mr. Sprague had stopped speaking. He began again, but it was not easy for him to continue. Here and there a laugh could be heard. All were glad when it was time to go home.

Tom Sawyer went home quite happy. Church was a pleasure when something different happened. There was only one thing that he did not like. He was glad to let the dog play with his bug. But the dog should not have carried it away.









experience [ik'spiəriəns] -
опыт



gentleman [dʒentlmən] -
джентльмен
lady ['leidi] -
леди



















whitewash - белить




















manly ['mænli] -
мужественный, отважный


Jesus Christ
['dʒi:zəs kraist]
Иисус Христос




























goodness ['gʊdnəs] -
доброта












soul [səʊl] -
душа

















object ['ɒbdʒikt] -
объект








tail [teil] -
хвост
_______________________________________________

Lesson 2 from radio station "VOA"

In this lesson you will learn how to introduce ([intrə'dju:s] - представлять, знакомить) other people and tell what work they do. You will hear Martin Learner at a reception ([ri'sepʃn] - приемная) where he meets an engineer ([endʒi'niə(r)] - инженер), two accountants ([ə'kaʊntənt] - бухгалтер), and another reporter ([ri'pɔ:(r)tə(r)] - репортер).

This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now Lesson 2, Part 1:

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner.

Debbie: I'm Debbie Johnson.

Martin: Pardon (['pa:(r)dən] - простите*, выучите это слово)?

Debbie: I'm Debbie Johnson. This is Mr. O'Brien.

Martin: Hello. I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter.

Debbie: Mr. O'Brien is a reporter!

Martin: Good. I'm happy to meet you.

Debbie: Mr. Learner. This is Mrs. Montgomery. She's an engineer.

Martin: Hello.

Melanie: Good afternoon. I'm Melanie Montgomery. I'm happy to meet you.

Martin: Thank you. You're an engineer?

Melanie: Yes I'm an engineer.

Martin: This is Mr. O'Brien.

Jim: Hello. I'm Jim O'Brien. How are you?

Melanie: Fine thanks.

Martin: He's a reporter.

Jim: He's a reporter too.

Melanie: Hello Valerie.

Valerie: Melanie! How are you?

Melanie: Fine thanks. How are you?

Valerie: Fine thanks.

Melanie: Valerie this is Jim O'Brien.

Valerie: Hello.

Jim: Good afternoon.

Melanie: And this is Martin Learner.

Martin: Good afternoon. We've met.

Valerie: Oh yes. At the airport.

Martin: How are you?

Valerie: Fine thanks.

Melanie: Valerie is an accountant.

Jim: At the airport?

Valerie: Yes.

Melanie: Mr. O'Brien is a reporter. And Mr. Learner is a reporter too.

Martin & Jim: That's right. We're both reporters.

* - pardon может быть также существительным "прощение". В качестве глагола он похож на изученный ранее глагол forgive.


Please answer other people naming yourself.

Martin: Hello I'm Martin Learner.

You: (Hello. I'm "YOUR NAME".)

Debbie: I'm Debbie Johnson.

You: (Hello. I'm "YOUR NAME".)

Melanie: I'm Melanie Montgomery.

You: (Hello. I'm "YOUR NAME".)

Jim: Hello I'm Jim O'Brien.

You: (Hello. I'm "YOUR NAME".)

Debbie: Mr. O'Brien. This is Miss Genaux.

Jim: Pardon?

Debbie: This is Miss Genaux.

Jim: We've met.

Debbie: Oh, well, this is Mr. Greer.

Jim: Pardon?

Debbie: This is Mr. Greer.

Jim: Hello I'm Jim O'Brien. How are you?

Peter: I'm Peter. Peter Greer. I'm fine thanks.

Debbie: Mr. Greer is an accountant.

Jim: Miss Genaux is an accountant too.

Peter: Pardon?

Jim: Miss Genaux is an accountant too.

Valerie: Yes, I'm an accountant.


When you do not hear someone clearly and want the speaker to repeat, you can say "pardon":

Debbie: This is Miss Genaux.

Jim: Pardon?

Debbie: This is Miss Genaux. And this is Mr. Greer.

Jim: Pardon?

Debbie: This is Mr. Greer.


Learn to say Pardon. After Debbie introduce you other people and you cannot catch their name:

Debbie: This is Martin Learner.

You: ( Pardon?)

Debbie: This is Jim O'Brien.

You: ( Pardon?)

Debbie: This is Melanie Montgomery.

You: ( Pardon?)

Debbie: This is Peter Greer.

You: ( Pardon?)

Martin: Good afternoon. I'm Martin Learner. This is Peter Greer. And this is Valerie Genaux.

Brad: Good.

Martin: I'm a reporter.

Brad: I'm a musician (['mju:'ziʃn] - музыкант).


This is English USA on the Voice of America. Now Lesson 2, Part 2:

Debbie: Hello I'm Debbie Johnson.

Brad: Good afternoon. I'm Brad Foster.

Debbie: You're the musician.

Brad: Yes I am.

Debbie: I'm happy to meet you. This is Valerie Genaux.

Brad: We've met.

Debbie: This is Martin Learner.

Brad: We've met too.

Debbie: And this is Dr. Elizabeth Bliss.

Martin: Good afternoon. I'm happy to meet you.

Elizabeth: Thank you. I'm happy to meet you too.

Debbie: Miss Genaux is an accountant.

Brad: And I'm a musician.

Martin: I'm a reporter.

Elizabeth: Good afternoon, I'm Elizabeth Bliss.

Jim: Hello, I'm Jim O'Brien. And this is Martin Learner.

Elizabeth: We've met.

Martin: Miss Bliss is a doctor.


When you are introduced to someone you have already met you can say you have met. Listen again:

Jim: This is Martin Learner.

Elizabeth: We've met.

Debbie: This is Valerie Genaux.

Brad: We've met.


Please say "We've met".

Jim: This is Martin Learner.

You: (We've met)

Debbie: This is Valerie Genaux.

You: (We've met)


People want to know what work other people do. You have heard sentences like these:

Martin: This is Brad Foster. He's a musician.

Debbie: This is Martin Learner. He's a reporter.

Martin: This is Melanie Montgomery. She's an engineer.

Debbie: This is Valerie Genaux. She's an accountant.

Martin: This is Elizabeth Bliss. She's a doctor.


Say what to do these persons:

Martin: This is Brad Foster.

You: ( He's a musician.)

Debbie: This is Martin Learner.

You: (He's a reporter.)

Martin: This is Melanie Montgomery.

You: (She's an engineer.)

Debbie: This is Valerie Genaux.

You: (She's an accountant.)

Martin: This is Elizabeth Bliss.

You: (She's a doctor.)

Melanie: Hello I'm Melanie.

Elizabeth: I'm Elizabeth Bliss.

Melanie: Pardon?

Elizabeth: I'm Elizabeth Bliss. This is Jim O'Brien. He's a reporter

Melanie: We've met.

Jim: Elizabeth is a doctor.

Melanie: Good. I'm an engineer.


Learn: greeting, your name and what you do:

Martin: Hello, I'm Martin Learner. I'm a reporter.


Martin greets you. Please answer greeting of Martin, say your own name and what you do:

Martin: Hello, I'm Martin Learner.

You: ( Hello, I'm "YOUR NAME", I'm "WHAT YOU DO".)


Martin greets you. You answer greeting of Martin by saying your name and also introduce someone else who is with you.

Martin: Hello I'm Martin Learner.

You: (Hello I'm "YOUR NAME", this is "HIS NAME".)

Martin: I'm happy to meet you.

Debbie: Martin. Martin. Martin Learner. This is Steven Smith.

Remember the words of the previous lesson:

bell - колокол, звонок ([bel])
raise - поднимать, повысить ([reiz])
beat - удар, бить ([bi:t])
wise - мудрый ([waiz])
truth - правда ([tru:θ])
greet - приветствовать, встречать ([gri:t])
duty - обязанность, долг, пошлина (['dju:ti])
therefore - поэтому, следовательно (['ðeə(r)fɔ:(r)])
desire - желание, желать ([di'zaiə(r)])
value - ценность, значение, стоимость (['vælju:])
circle - круг (['sε:(r)kl])
sweet - сладость (сладкое) ([swi:t])
share - доля, часть, делить ([ʃeə(r)])
add - добавлять ([æd])
suffer - страдать (['sʌfə(r)])
weep - плакать ([wi:p])
adventure - приключение, авантюра, риск ([əd'ventʃə(r)])
heart - сердце ([ha:(r)t])
dare - сметь, рисковать ([deə(r)])
sadness - печаль (['sædnəs])
fence - забор, ограждение ([fens])

Repeat the words of this lesson:

ring - звонить, звенеть ([riŋ])
honour - честь, почет, почтить (['ɒnə])
bible - библия ([baibl])
size - размер ([saiz])
bug - жук, жучок (для подслушивания), баг ([bʌg])
nation - нация, народ ([neiʃn])
wing - крыло ([wiŋ])
fellow - парень, приятель, товарищ (['feləʊ])
painful - болезненный ([peinfl])
peaceful - мирный ([pi:sfl])
equal - равный (['i:kwəl])
pray - молиться ([prei])
judge - судья, судить ([dʒʌdʒ])
verse - стих ([vε:(r)s])

The new verbs of this lesson are honour, pray and ring. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.

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