1 - не путайте существительное campaign с изученным ранее company. Их отличие такое же, как и русских "компания" (группа людей или организация) и "кампания" (совокупность военных операций или действий для осуществления какой-то задачи - "военная кампания", "предвыборная кампания").
3 - существительное majority очень похоже по значению на изученное ранее наречие most. Часто встречается с предлогом of:
The majority of them are vegetarians. - Большинство из них - вегетарианцы.
Посмотрите на произношение этого существительного американскими носителями языка: [mə'dʒɔ:rəti].
4 - существительное press имеет два основных значения: "пресс" (устройство для сжатия чего-либо с целью уменьшения формы или получения из сжимаемого какого-либо экстракта) или "пресса" (печатное издание - газеты, журналы).
В качестве глагола, основное значение press - это "прижимать" что-либо. После него может стоять предлог to, если говорится, что объект просто прикладывается, и предлог against, если объект прижимается с усилием, противостоянием с противоположной стороны:
I pressed my hands to her hands to warm them. - Я прижал мои руки к ее рукам, чтобы согреть их.
I pressed my hands against his chest to push him out of here. - Я прижал мои руки к его груди, чтобы вытолкнуть его отсюда.
Также этот глагол часто встречается в переносном смысле - продвигать что-либо с силой. После него ставятся предлоги on/upon, если говорится "на" кого происходит давление:
They pressed their plan un/upon us. - Они продвигали свой план на нас.
5 - существительные variety отличается от изученного ранее difference, точно так же как и прилагательное various от different. Первое характеризует выбор, а второе отличие.
6 - произношение существительного version отличается американскими носителями языка: ['vε:rʒn].
7 - прилагательное general является синонимом изученного ранее прилагательного common, придает объекту признак всеобщего (для большинства людей). Также general может быть существительным-воинским званием - "генерал".
8 - наречие according в основном используется в предложение с частицей to и переводится как "в соответствии с":
According to my experience, we can earn more. - В соответствие с мои опытом, мы можем зарабатывать больше.
Look at these new words in sentences:
Our campaign is for the majority of countries.
Наша кампания для большинства стран.
This version of press tells us about the cultures of various folks.
Эта версия прессы рассказывает нам о культурах различных народов.
We need more variety of general competitionsaccording to customer interest.
Нам нужно большее разнообразие общих соревнований в соответствии с интересами клиентов.
This press lets get any surface.
Этот пресс позволяет получить любую поверхность.
No generals win wars.
Не генералы выигрывают войны.
Their culture presses against ours.
Их культура давит на нашу.
The majority has general taste.
Большинство имеет общий вкус.
Their campaign helps to understand the culture of this small village.
Их кампания помогает понять культуру этой маленькой деревни.
Our shop offers a wide variety of surfaces.
Наш магазин предлагает широкое разнообразие поверхностей.
He pressed his back to the wall.
Он прижал спину к стене.
She found a new version of the programme.
Она нашла новую версию программы.
This competition is impossible to win according to the general opinion.
Это соревнование невозможно выиграть согласно общему мнению.
Majority of us needs a variety of food.
Большинству из нас нужно разнообразие еды.
This campaign plays against people.
Эта кампания играет против людей.
According to their culture, you should pass all competitions before you marry her.
Согласно их культуре, ты должен пройти все состязания перед тем, как ты женишься на ней.
Now, you can continue reading the text.
Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 10)
The last goodbyes
At that same hour in the early afternoon a coach going out of Paris drives up to the gates of the city.
"Who goes there? Show us your papers!" The guard looks at the papers. "Alexandre Manette, Doctor. Which is he?"
"This is Dr Manette; this helpless old man, whispering crazily to himself."
"The last few days of the Revolution have been too much for him," said the guard with a cruel laugh. "Lucie his daughter. The wife of Evremonde. Which is she?"
"This is she. With her child, little Lucie, beside her."
"Hah, your husband has another meeting today. Sydney Carton. Lawyer, English. Which is he?"
"He is here, in the corner. He is not well.
"And Jarvis Lorry. Banker, English. Which is he?"
"I am he, and the last," says Jarvis Lorry.
"Here are your papers, Jarvis Lorry. You may go."
There are wildly beating hearts in the coach, and trembling hands; there is the heavy breathing of the unconscious traveller. But onwards the coach goes; the horses are fast, and there are no shouts behind them on the road.
Also that afternoon Madame Defarge was talking with her friends.
"My husband is a good citizen, but he is not strong enough. He feels sorry for the Doctor. I say that all the Evremonde people must go to the Guillotine. The wife and the child must follow the husband."
"They're both fine heads for the Guillotine," said Jacques Three. "Their heads will be a pretty sight when they are shown to the people. Yes, they too, must die."
"But I'm afraid that my husband may warn them and let them escape," Madame Defarge went on, "And I must do something myself. After the death of Evremonde at three this afternoon we'll go to the Tribunal and accuse them."
The others agreed willingly. "No one must escape. More heads must fall."
"Lucie Manette will be at home now, waiting for the moment of her husband's death," said Madame Defarge. "I will go to her. She will say things against the Revolution, and condemn herself. Here, take my knitting and keep my usual seat near the Guillotine."
"Don't be late," said her friend.
"To see the death of Evremonde, I shall not be late," replied the cruel voice of Madame Defarge.
There were many women in Paris at that time who hated the nobles and wanted to see them die. But of all these women, Madame Defarge was the one most feared. All her life she had been filled with hate. It was nothing to her that an innocent man was going to die because of his father's and his uncle's crimes. She wanted more. Hidden in her clothes were a gun and a sharp knife, and with her usual confident step, she began to walk to Dr Manette's house.
The house was not yet empty. Miss Pross and Jerry Cruncher were there, preparing to follow Mr Lorry's coach. Mr Lorry had decided that two coaches were better than one; with fewer passengers, each coach would travel faster. But Miss Pross was still worried. A second coach leaving from the house might suggest an escape.
"Mr Cruncher," she said, "You must go and stop our coach coming here. Drive to the church instead, and I'll meet you there at three o'clock."
Jerry hurried away. It was twenty past two, and at once Miss Pross began to get herself ready to leave. She was washing her face when she suddenly looked up and saw a figure standing in the room.
Madame Defarge looked at her coldly. "The wife of Evremonde; where is she?"
Miss Pross quickly stood in front of the door to Lucie's room. "You're a cruel, dangerous woman, but you won't frighten me," she said, breathing hard.
Each woman spoke in her own language, and neither understood the other's words. But Madame Defarge knew that Miss Pross was a true friend of the Doctor's family, and Miss Pross knew that Madame Defarge was the family's enemy.
"I wish to see the wife of Evremonde. Go and tell her. Do you hear me?" said Madame Defarge. She stared angrily at Miss Pross, but Miss Pross stared back just as angrily.
"I am desperate," said Miss Pross. "I know that the longer I can keep you here, the greater hope there is for my darling girl. If you fight me, I'll fight back!"
Madame Defarge stepped forward and called loudly, "Citizen Doctor! Wife of Evremonde! Answer me!"
There was no answer and Madame Defarge quickly opened three of the doors and saw that the rooms were empty. One door was still closed.
"If they are not in that room, they are gone. But they can be followed and brought back." She went towards the door; but Miss Pross jumped forward and held her round the waist. Madame Defarge was used to the fighting in the streets and was strong, but love is stronger than hate and Miss Pross did not let go. Madame Defarge tried to pull out her knife.
"No," said Miss Pross, "It's under my arm. You shall not have it."
Madame Defarge put her hand to the front of her dress and began to pull out the gun. Miss Pross looked down, saw what it was, and hit out at it wildly. There was a loud bang, and a cloud of smoke, and Miss Pross stood alone, trembling with terror.
All this in a second. As the smoke cleared, Miss Pross saw the lifeless body of Madame Defarge on the ground. In horror, she opened her mouth to call for help, but then she thought of the dangers this would bring for her dear Lucie. With shaking hands, she got her hat and coat, locked the door of the room, and went downstairs. As she crossed the bridge on the way to the church, she dropped the key of the locked room in the river and hurried on to meet Jerry Cruncher.
As the death-carts carry the condemned prisoners through the streets of Paris, crowds watch to see the faces of those who are to die. In the chairs around the Guillotine, the friends of Madame Defarge are waiting for her. "Teresa, Teresa Defarge! Who has seen her? She's never missed before!"
But the death-carts have arrived, and the Guillotine has already begun its work. Crash! - A head is held up, and the women who sit knitting count One.
The supposed Evremonde helps the young girl down from the cart. He carefully places her with her back to the Guillotine, and she looks up gratefully into his face.
"Because of you, dear stranger, I am calm. I think you were sent to me by God," she whispers.
"Or perhaps He sent you to me," says Sydney Carton. "Keep your eyes on me, dear child, and do not think of anything else."
"I do not mind while I hold your hand. I shall not mind when I let it go, if they are quick."
"They are quick. Fear not!"
She kisses his lips; he kisses hers. Now the Guillotine is waiting. The young girl goes next, before him. The women count Twenty-Two, and Carton walks forward.
They said of him that it was the most peaceful face ever seen there. What passed through Sydney Carton's mind as he walked those last steps to his death? Perhaps he saw into the future ...
I see Barsad, Defarge, the judges, all dying under this terrible machine. I see a beautiful city being built in this terrible place. I see that new people will live here, in real freedom. I see the lives for whom I give my life, happy and peaceful in that England which I shall never see again. I see Lucie when she is old, crying for me on this day every year, and I know that she and her husband remember me until their deaths. I see their son, who has my name, now a man. I see him become a famous lawyer and make my name famous by his work. I hear him tell his son my story.
"It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to, than I have ever known."
Guillotine ['giləti:n] - гильотина
tribunal [trai'bju:nəl] - Трибунал
waist [weist] - талия
death-cart - повозка-смерти
Lesson 32 from radio station "VOA"
In this English USA lesson, Martin Learner is at home with his family in the evening. They talk about activities each is taking part in. You will learn to understand general and specific times of events and activities, and to state (утверждать) specific times at which you do things.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 32, Part 1:
Eileen: Did you finish your work?
Martin: Yes, I did. Where are the children?
Eileen: Sue is reading. Alan is dressing.
Eileen: For the party. He's going to a party tonight.
Martin: Oh, yes. That's right. When is the party?
Eileen: The party begins at ten o'clock.
Martin: Is he dressing now? It's only seven o'clock.
Eileen: I know. But he's dressing. The party is important. Martin, are you going to take Sue to the movies tomorrow?
Martin: I can. Does she want to go tomorrow?
Eileen: Yes, she does. When is your meeting tomorrow?
Martin: In the morning.
Eileen: When is the meeting?
Martin: At eleven o'clock.
Eileen: Can you go to the movies in the afternoon?
Martin: Yes, I can. When?
Eileen: At four o'clock.
Eileen: Sue wants to go to Jennifer's house tomorrow. She can go in the morning.
Martin: When is dinner?
Eileen: You didn't eat lunch. Do you want dinner?
Martin: Very much!
Eileen: Dinner is at seven-thirty.
Sue: Hi. May I come in?
Martin: Of course.
Sue: Did you finish your work?
Martin: Yes, I did.
Sue: Can we go to the movies tomorrow?
Martin: Yes, we can.
Martin: In the afternoon.
Sue: Can we go at six o'clock? I want to go to Jennifer's house.
Martin: That's very late. You have school on Monday. Let's go at four o'clock.
Sue: When can I go to Jennifer's house?
Eileen: You can go to Jennifer's house in the morning.
Sue: May I phone Jennifer now?
Eileen: No. It's time for dinner.
Sue: When may I phone her?
Eileen: After dinner.
Sue: When is dinner?
Eileen: At seven-thirty.
Martin: In a few minutes.
Sue: OK. I'm going to read.
Eileen: I'm going to finish dinner. Come help me.
Time can be stated in a general way or by giving a specific time. First, listen to some general times. These are usually periods of time.
Eileen: Tonight. Tomorrow.
Martin: In the morning.
Eileen: In the afternoon.
Martin: on Monday.
Eileen: After dinner.
Martin: In a few minutes.
Now, listen to some specific times. These are often stated as a number followed by "o'clock," meaning according to the clock*:
Martin: At seven o'clock. At eleven o'clock.
Eileen: At four o'clock. At seven-thirty.
Sue: At six o'clock.
Martin: At four o'clock.
* - существительное clock также может значит "часы" (механизм для индикации времени), но в отличии от watch его не носят на руке, а он стационарно находится в помещение.
Can you answer the following questions by giving a specific time?
Martin: When do you go to work?
You: (I go to work at ... .)
Martin: When do you eat lunch?
You: (I eat lunch at ... .)
Martin: When do you shop?
You: (I shop at ... .)
Eileen: I'm going to call the children.
Martin: I'm going to get some water.
Eileen: OK. Alan! Sue!
In the second part of the English USA lesson, you will learn to state specific times of events and activities, and learn to understand ways of stating general time.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 32, Part 2:
Eileen: Did you finish your book, Sue?
Sue: Yes, I did.
Alan: Did you like it? I read that book four years ago.
Sue: Yes, I liked it.
Alan: That book is for boys.
Sue: No, it isn't.
Alan: Yes, it is.
Eileen: No, it isn't, Alan. I read that book many years ago.
Martin: Don't ask me. I don't want to say. I read it too. Alan, when are you coming home?
Alan: In the morning. At nine o'clock.
Eileen: Are you going to have breakfast?
Eileen: When are you going to have breakfast?
Alan: We're going to have breakfast there, in the morning. When is your meeting, dad?
Martin: The meeting is at eleven o'clock.
Alan: May I come home at eleven o'clock? You can meet me at the Itoh's house.
Martin: No. You come home at nine o'clock. I want you to come before my meeting.
Sue: Alan, can you come to the movies with us?
Alan: When are you going to the movies?
Sue: At four o'clock.
Alan: What movie are you going to see?
Sue: We're going to see the Walt Disney movie.
Alan: That's for children.
Sue: Daddy's going with me.
Alan: I don't want to see a movie for children.
Eileen: Alan, it's not for children.
Alan: I have to study in the afternoon.
Sue: Can you study in the evening?
Alan: I have to study in the afternoon and in the evening.
Sue: When are you going to study?
Alan: I'm going to study after lunch and after dinner.
Eileen: When are you going to work?
Alan: I'm not going to work tomorrow. I have to work on Monday.
Eileen: When are you going to work on Monday?
Alan: At seven-thirty.
Martin: In the evening?
Alan: No. In the morning.
Eileen: Before school?
Alan: Of course. I'm going to work at seven-thirty and then I'm going to school at eight-thirty.
Martin: I don't like you to work in the morning.
Alan: I'm going to work only this week.
Remember there are many phrases that express general times. Listen to some examples again:
Alan: Four years ago.
Eileen: Many years ago.
Alan: In the morning.
Martin: Before my meeting.
Alan: In the afternoon. In the evening. After lunch. After dinner. Tomorrow. On Monday.
Eileen: Before school.
Alan: This week.
Now, listen to some specific times:
Alan: At nine o'clock.
Martin: At eleven o'clock.
Sue: At four o'clock.
Alan: At seven-thirty. At eight-thirty.
Notice that when we give a specific time on the hour, we say "o'clock." When we give a part of an hour, the easiest way to say the time is give the hour, then give the number of minutes after the hour. For example "seven-thirty." Now, can you give specific times for the following questions?
Martin: When do you go to work?
You: (I go to work at ... .)
Martin: When do you eat?
You: (I eat at ... .)
Remember the words of the previous lesson:
reflection - отражение ([ri'flekʃən])
electronic - электронный ([ilek'trɒnik])
military - военный (['milətri])
conscious - сознательный (['kɒnʃəs])
sector - сектор (['sektə(r)])
reflect - отражать ([ri'flekt])
proposition - предложение ([prɒpə'ziʃən])
admit - допустить, признать ([əd'mit])
unconscious - бессознательный ([ʌn'kɒnʃəs])
proposal - предложение ([prə'pəʊzl])
basic - основной (['beisik])
electronics - электроника ([ilek'trɒniks])
mention - упоминать ([menʃn])
suggestion - предложение ([sə'dʒestʃən])
instance - случай, пример (['instəns])
Repeat the words of this lesson:
competition - соревнование ([kɒmpə'tiʃn])
press - пресс, прижимать, пресса ([pres])
version - версия (['vε:ʃn])
campaign - кампания ([kæm'pein])
variety - разнообразие ([və'raiəti])
according - в соответствии ([ə'kɔ:(r)diŋ])
culture - культура (['kʌltʃə(r)])
majority - большинство ([mə'dʒɒrəti])
surface - поверхность (['sε:(r)fis])
general - общий (['dʒenrəl])
The new verb of this lesson is press. It was the last lesson of our course. I hope you like it. Next, you should read texts and watch videos with subtitles. It is a lot of information in the internet. You must remember that it is very important to study English every day. If you missed a day, you forgot something. Good luck!