1 - существительное instance имеет два основных значения:
"Пример". Как и его изученный ранее синоним example, оно часто встречается в сочетание с предлогом for:
For instance, she bought only one pair of shoes. - К примеру, она купила только одну пару туфель.
Отдельный, определенный "случай". Часто встречается в сочетание in this instance:
In this instance I will buy one pair too. - В таком случае, я куплю одну пару тоже.
2 - существительные proposal и proposition образованы от глагола propose с помощью суффиксов -al и -tion соответственно. Существительное suggestion образовано от глагола suggest. Не путайте их с так часто встречающимся в каждом уроке синтаксическим существительным sentence. Обратите внимание на отличие произношения существительного proposition - [prɒpə'ziʃən] от образующего его глагола propose - [prə'pəʊzl]. Американские носители языка произносят его немного по другому: [pra:pə'ziʃən]. Эти три существительные по сути означают одно и то же.
3 - глагол admit имеет два основных значения:
I admit my mistakes. - Я признаю свои ошибки.
"Допускать" кого-либо куда либо. Если говорится куда допускается объект, то после admit ставится предлог to:
I was admitted to the police station. - Я был допущен в полицейский участок.
4 - как и в русском языке, в английском глагол reflect в прямом смысле означает "отражать" что-либо от поверхности и в переносном смысле: "отражать" суть чего-либо. Если говорится "от" чего отражается что-либо, то после этого глагола ставится логичный предлог from.
All light reflected from the lake. - Весь свет отражался от озера.
All his thoughts were reflected in this book. - Все его мысли отражались в этой книге.
От этого глагола образуется существительное reflection ([ri'flekʃən] - отражение
) с помощью суффикса -tion.
5 - прилагательное basic образовано от изученного ранее существительное base, и оно очень похоже на прилагательное main. Их различие точно такое же, как русских "основной" и "главный".
6 - от прилагательного conscious образуется противоположное по смыслу прилагательное с помощью префикса un-: unconscious ([ʌn'kɒnʃəs] - бессознательный
Американское произношение этих прилагательных: ['ka:nʃəs] и [ʌn'ka:nʃəs].
7 - от прилагательного electronic образуется существительное electronics ([ilek'trɒniks*] - электроника
). Оно может быть как в единственном числе, так и во множественном числе, в зависимости от контекста. Обратите внимание на отличие в произношении прилагательного и существительного американскими носителями языка: [ilek'tra:nik] и [ilek'tra:niks].
Look at these new words in sentences:
We admit to this sector only military men.
Мы допускаем в этот сектор только военных людей.
Our basic goal is to stay conscious.
Наша основная цель - оставаться в сознание.
The chief has already mentioned that my proposals are brilliant.
Глава уже упоминал, что мои предложения блестящие.
He admits that this examplereflects his basic problems.
Он признает, что этот пример отражает его основные проблемы.
Did you mention that instance which happened last winter?
Ты упомянул тот случай, который произошел прошлой зимой?
This clever doctor noticed all your unconscious actions.
Этот умный доктор замечал все твои бессознательные действия.
She likes her reflection in the mirror.
Ей нравится ее отражение в зеркале.
You can find any electronics in our shop.
Вы можете найти любую электронику в нашем магазине.
I admit that your suggestions are better.
Я признаю, что твои предложения лучше.
This serious man wears only military clothes.
Этот серьезный мужчина носит только военную одежду.
In this instance the sector will be destroyed.
В таком случае, этот сектор будет разрушен.
Electronic machines think faster than people.
Электронные машины думают быстрее чем люди.
Your conscious and unconscious actions reflect your behaviour.
Твои сознательные и бессознательные действия отражают твое поведение.
I didn't admit everybody here.
Я не допускаю каждого сюда.
Our city is divided into sectors.
Наш город поделен на сектора.
They refused your proposition because it was against their basic rule.
Они отвергли твое предложение, потому что оно противоречит их основному правилу.
You like electronics too much.
Ты любишь электронику слишком сильно.
He didn't mention his proposal at the meeting.
Он не упоминал свое предложение на встрече.
The modern electronics helps military to support order in this sector.
Современная электроника помогает военным поддерживать порядок в этом секторе.
This model totally reflects any electronic waves.
Эта модель полностью отражает любые электронные волны.
Now, you can continue reading the text.
Text: A Tale of Two Cities (part 9)
Madame Defarge's revenge
Lucie held out her arms to her husband. "Let me kiss him, one last time."
Most of the citizens had gone out into the streets to shout how they hated the prisoners, but Barsad was still there. "Let her kiss her husband," he said. "It's just for a minute."
Lucie went over to her husband and he took her in his arms. Dr Manette followed his daughter and fell on his knees before them, but Darnay pulled him to his feet, saying, "No, no. Now we know how much you suffered, especially when you knew whose son I was. But you kept your feelings secret, because of your love for Lucie. We thank you, with all our hearts, for what you did. I tried so hard to do what my mother had wished, but I never found that poor girl. And how could that terrible story ever have a happy ending?"
He turned to his wife. "My dearest love, we shall meet again, in the place where there are no worries. God be with you both."
As Darnay was taken away, Lucie fell to the floor, unconscious. Sydney Carton came quickly forward to help Mr Lorry and Dr Manette. He carried Lucie to her coach and she was taken home. Then he carried her into the house where her daughter and Miss Pross waited, tears falling from their eyes.
"Before I go," said Sydney Carton, "May I kiss her?" He touched Lucie's face lightly with his lips, whispered a few words, and went into the next room.
"You are still very popular with the citizens, Doctor. You must try again to talk to the judges."
"I'll do everything I can. Everything," Dr Manette said.
Mr Lorry went with Carton to the door.
"I have no hope," whispered Mr Lorry sadly.
"Nor have I," replied Carton. "After today, no judge in Paris would even try to save him. The people would be too angry. I will return here later, to see if there is any news, but there is no real hope."
He left the house and began to walk quickly towards Saint Antoine. His face was calm and serious; he looked like a man who had decided to do something.
"I must show myself to the people here," he thought. "They should know that there is a man like me in the city."
In Defarge's wine-shop the only customer was Jacques Three, who had been on the Tribunal that had decided Darnay should die. When Carton sat down and asked for a glass of wine, Madame Defarge looked at him carelessly at first. Then much more carefully. She went back to her husband and Jacques Three, who were talking.
"He is very much like Evremonde," she said softly.
Defarge himself looked at Carton and said, "Yes, but only a little," and the three continued their conversation. Carton listened carefully, while pretending to read a newspaper.
"Madame is right," said Jacques Three. "Why should we stop at Evremonde?"
"We must stop somewhere," said Defarge.
"Not until they are all dead, every one of that family," said his wife.
"You're right, but think how much the Doctor has suffered. Perhaps he has suffered enough."
"Listen," said Madame Defarge coldly. "Don't forget that I was that younger sister. And it was my family that suffered so much from the Evremonde brothers. It was my sister who died, and my sister's husband, and my father; it was my brother who was killed. Tell others to stop; don't tell me!"
Carton paid for his wine and went out quickly on his way. He went back to Dr Manette's house, where more bad news was waiting for him. The Doctor's mind had returned to the past once again. He did not recognize his friends,
and wanted only to find his old table and to make shoes.
"Listen to me carefully," Carton said to Mr Lorry. "I believe that Lucie, her daughter, and perhaps even her father are in great danger. I heard Madame Defarge talking about them tonight. They must leave Paris tomorrow. They have the necessary papers, and so do you. Here are mine - take them and keep them safe with your own. You must leave by coach at two o'clock tomorrow. Keep a place for me in the coach, and don't leave without me. Promise that you will do exactly what I have said. Many lives will depend on it."
"I promise," said Mr Lorry.
A change of clothes
Charles Darnay passed his last night alone in the prison. He had no hope. He knew he must die, not for anything he had done wrong, but for the crimes of his father and his uncle. He sat down to write to his wife: I knew nothing about the time your father spent in prison until he told me. Even then I did not know that it was my family that had been so cruel to him. I told your father that my real name was Evremonde, and he made me promise not to tell you. I am sure that he had forgotten the paper he had written, but what has happened now is not his fault. Take care of him and our child, and one day we shall all meet again in the happier world that comes after death.
Darnay did not sleep peacefully that night and in the morning he walked up and down his prison, waiting. He counted the hours - nine, gone for ever, ten, eleven, twelve gone for ever. At one o'clock he heard someone outside the door. The door opened and closed and there stood Sydney Carton, holding a warning finger to his lips.
"Be quiet! I come from your wife. She begs you to do exactly what I say, and to ask no questions. There is no time. Take off your boots and put on mine."
"Carton, my dear friend," said Darnay, "It is impossible to escape from this place. You will only die with me."
"I'm not asking you to escape. Put on my shirt, and my coat."
He did not allow Darnay time to argue or refuse. "Now sit down and write what I say," he said. "Quickly, my friend, quickly!"
"If you remember," he said, and Darnay wrote, "The words we spoke so long ago, you will understand this when you see it." As he said this, Carton took his hand from his pocket.
"What is that in your hand?" asked Darnay.
"Nothing. Have you written see it? Good, now go on writing," said Carton quietly. "I am happy that I can prove them now.This is not a reason for sadness."
Carton's hand was close to Darnay's face, and he gently pressed a cloth against Darnay's nose and mouth. A minute later Darnay lay unconscious on the ground. Carton quickly dressed himself in Darnay's clothes, and pushed the note that Darnay had written inside Darnay's pocket. Then he went to the door and called softly, "Come in now."
The spy Barsad came in.
"Quick, help me," said Carton. "You must help me to the coach."
"You?" asked the spy.
"Him, man, I've changed places with him. You can say that it was too much for him, saying his last goodbye to his friend.That happens quite often, I believe."
"Yes, often," replied Barsad. "But do you promise to keep me out of danger, and go on with this plan to the end? The number must be right. Fifty-two prisoners must die today."
"Have I not already promised to be true to the death? Hurry, man! Take him to Mr Lorry, put him in the coach yourself, and tell Mr Lorry to leave at once!"
Barsad called two men into the room, and told them to lift the unconscious man and carry him out.
"The time is short, Evremonde," said Barsad, in a warning voice.
"I know it well," replied Carton. "Be careful with my friend, and leave me."
The door closed and Carton was left alone. He listened carefully but there were only normal prison sounds. No shouts, no alarm bells. He waited calmly.
Soon he heard the sound of doors opening. The door of his prison cell opened and a man said, "Follow me, Evremonde!" And Carton followed him into a large, dark room.
There were many people there, some standing, some sitting, some walking about, some crying. Most of them stood, silent, looking at the ground. A young woman came up to him; she was thin and pale.
"Citizen Evremonde," she said. "I was with you in La Force."
"True," he said softly, "But I forget what you were accused of."
"I am innocent. What could a poor little thing like me do? I am not afraid to die, Citizen Evremonde, but I have done nothing."
Her sad smile as she said this touched Carton's heart.
"They say that the Revolution will do so much good for the poor people," said the girl. "How can my death help the poor? If it is true, I am willing to die, but I do not know how that can be. I heard that you were set free, Citizen Evremonde," she went on. "I hoped it was true."
"It was, but I was taken again, and condemned."
"When we go from here, Citizen Evremonde, will you let me hold your hand? I am not afraid but I am little and weak, and it will help to make me brave."
The young girl looked into his face and he saw a sudden doubt come into her eyes, followed by surprise. He touched his lips with his finger.
"Are you dying for him?" she whispered.
"And his wife and child. Yes."
"Oh, will you let me hold your brave hand, stranger?"
"Yes, my poor sister, to the last."
tribunal [trai'bju:nəl] - Трибунал
Lesson 31 from radio station "VOA"
In this English USA lesson, Martin Learner is trying to work at home. He expresses his dislike of several things happening at home. You will learn to express your dislikes too.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 31, Part 1:
Martin: Alan! Alan!
Martin: Turn off that music. I don't like that music. I'm working.
Eileen: Did you call, Martin?
Martin: No, I didn't. I mean I called Alan. I didn't call you.
Eileen: Do you want Alan?
Martin: No, I don't want him. I wanted him to turn off the music. I'm working. I'm writing. I didn't want that music.
Eileen: You often play music.
Martin: I don't play that music. I don't like that music.
Eileen: OK. I'm going to tell him.
Martin: I told him. He turned off the music.
Eileen: Oh, yes, he did. I'm going to make some tea. Do you want some?
Martin: No, thanks. May I have some coffee? I don't like tea in the morning.
Eileen: I'm going to bring coffee.
Martin: Sue! Sue! Eileen!
Eileen: Did you call?
Martin: Is Sue listening to television?
Eileen: Yes. She often listens on Saturday morning.
Martin: May I speak to her?
Eileen: Of course. I'm going to get her.
Sue: Did you want me, daddy?
Martin: Yes, I did. What are you doing?
Sue: I'm watching TV.
Martin: Do you like TV?
Sue: Of course. Don't you like TV?
Martin: I don't like loud TV. I want to work today. I can't work with loud TV.
Sue: Do you want me to turn off the TV?
Martin: No, I don't want you to turn it off. Can you turn it down? I can't write with loud TV.
Sue: What are you writing?
Martin: I'm writing a story about football.
Sue: You wrote about baseball. You wrote about tennis. Now you're writing about football.
Martin: Don't you like sports?
Sue: I don't like some sports.
Martin: What sports don't you like?
Sue: I don't like ball games.
Martin: What sports do you like?
Sue: I like swimming. What sports don't you like?
Martin: I don't like racing.
Sue: You don't like horses?! Yes, you do.
Martin: I don't like car racing.
Martin: And I don't like loud TV.
Sue: TV isn't a sport!
Martin: I don't like it.
Sue: OK. Is it too loud now?
Martin: No, it isn't. I want to finish this story today.
Eileen: Here's the coffee. Do you want some cake?
Martin: No, thanks. Only coffee.
Listen to some sentences as Martin tells what he does not like:
Martin: I don't like that music. I don't like tea in the morning. I don't like loud TV. I don't like racing.
Can you answer questions about things you do or do not like (short answers)?
Martin: I don't like loud music. Do you like loud music?
You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't)
Martin: I don't like loud TV. Do you like loud TV?
You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't)
Martin: I don't like car racing. Do you like car racing?
You: (Yes, I do/No, I don't)
Sue: Daddy, can we go to the movies today?
Martin: I don't know. I want to write this story today. I don't like to go on Saturday. Can we go tomorrow?
Sue: No, I can't. I want to go to Jennifer's house tomorrow.
Martin: I don't like to stop my work. Can your mother take you?
Sue: I didn't ask.
Martin: Please ask her. I don't want to ask now.
Sue: She's making lunch.
Martin: Now? I don't want to eat now. I don't want to stop my writing. Please tell her.
In the second part of the lesson, Martin Learner continues to work at home, writing a story. You will learn to talk about events and activities that you do not like.
This is English USA, on the Voice of America. Now, Lesson 31, Part 2:
Eileen: Martin. Come to lunch.
Martin: No, thank you. I don't want to eat.
Eileen: You have to eat!
Martin: I want to write.
Eileen: You can't stop eating.
Martin: I don't want to stop now. I don't like to stop.
Eileen: But you can't write all day.
Martin: I'm going to finish this story.
Martin: Oh, hello, mother. No, I'm not eating lunch. I don't like to stop writing. I know. I can't stop eating. I'm going to eat later. What? No, I don't like going to the office on Saturday. I like to work at home on Saturday. No, I don't like to drive on Saturday. Mother, how is father? Good. Is he at home? No, I don't like to stop work. I'm going to see him next week. OK. Goodbye.
Alan: Hi, dad.
Alan: May I come in?
Martin: Yes. You are in.
Alan: Dad, may I go to a party tonight?
Martin: I don't know. Where is the party?
Alan: It's going to be at Billy's house.
Martin: Who is Billy?
Alan: Billy Itoh.
Martin: Excuse me.
Alan: Billy Itoh.
Martin: Spell it for me.
Alan: I-T-O-H. Itoh.
Martin: Who is Billy Itoh?
Alan: He's a boy in my class. His parents are from Japan.
Martin: What do they do?
Alan: His father has a business downtown (центр города).
Martin: What kind of business?
Alan: Electronics. Billy's mother works in the business too.
Martin: When is the party?
Martin: What time?
Alan: Ten o'clock.
Martin: Ten o'clock. That's very late. I don't like late parties.
Alan: It's Saturday night. There is no school tomorrow.
Martin: When is it going to finish?
Alan: I don't know. In the morning?
Martin: The party is all night?! I don't like all-night parties. You're too young.
Alan: I'm not young. I don't like to be called young.
Martin: You are young.
Alan: Oh, dad. I'm not very young. Sue is young. I'm not young.
Martin: Are Billy's parents going to be there?
Alan: Of course.
Martin: Did you ask your mother?
Alan: Of course.
Martin: What did she say?
Alan: She doesn't like late parties. She doesn't like all-night parties.
Martin: Excuse me.
Alan: She doesn't like all-night parties.
Can you tell about some of the things you do not like? Try to answer Martin's questions:
Martin: What music don't you like?
You: (I don't like ... music.)
Martin: What sport don't you like?
You: (I don't like ... .)
Martin: What musical instrument don't you like?
You: (I don't like ... .)
Martin: What food don't you like?
You: (I don't like ... .)
Alan: May I go, dad?
Martin: I want to talk to your mother. Please tell her.
Alan: OK. I know you don't like parties, but I want to go.
Martin: Eileen, do you know the Itoh family.
Eileen: Yes, I do. They're a very nice family.
Martin: OK. Alan can go to the party. Please tell him.
Remember the words of the previous lesson:
flow - поток, течь, литься ([fləʊ])
fever - лихорадка, жар (['fi:və(r)])
powder - порошок (['paʊdə(r)])
forbid - запрещать ([fə(r)'bid])
limb - конечность, ветка ([lim])
feverish - лихорадочный (['fivəriʃ])
wound - рана, ранить ([wu:nd])
assume - полагать ([ə'sju:m])
image - образ, изображение (['imidʒ])
inform - информировать, сообщать ([in'fɔ:(r)m])
procedure - процедура ([prə'si:dʒə(r)])
professional - профессиональный ([prə'feʃnəl])
Repeat the words of this lesson:
proposal - предложение ([prə'pəʊzl])
mention - упоминать ([menʃn])
conscious - сознательный (['kɒnʃəs])
electronics - электроника ([ilek'trɒniks])
sector - сектор (['sektə(r)])
reflect - отражать ([ri'flekt])
suggestion - предложение ([sə'dʒestʃən])
electronic - электронный ([ilek'trɒnik])
unconscious - бессознательный ([ʌn'kɒnʃəs])
instance - случай, пример (['instəns])
admit - допустить, признать ([əd'mit])
basic - основной (['beisik])
military - военный (['milətri])
reflection - отражение ([ri'flekʃən])
proposition - предложение ([prɒpə'ziʃən])
The new verbs of this lesson are admit, mention and reflect. If you are ready, you can start the next lesson.